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ălĭēno , āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. id. (purely prosaic, but class.).
I. Orig., to make one person or thing another: “facere, ut aliquis alius sit. Thus, in Plaut., Sosia says to Mercury, who represented himself as Sosia: certe edepol tu me alienabis numquam, quin noster siem,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 243. So also Pliny: “sacopenium, quod apud nos gignitur, in totum transmarino alienatur,is entirely other than, different from, the transmarine one, Plin. 20, 18, 75, § 197.—Hence, of things, a t. t. in the Roman lang. of business, to make something the property of another, to alienate, to transfer by sale (in the jurid. sense, diff. from vendere: Alienatum non proprie dicitur, quod adhuc in dominio venditoris manet? venditum tamen recte dicetur, Dig. 50, 16, 67; the former, therefore, includes the idea of a complete transfer of the thing sold): “pretio parvo ea, quae accepissent a majoribus, vendidisse atque alienāsse,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 60: “venire vestras res proprias atque in perpetuum a vobis alienari,id. Agr. 2, 21, 54: “vectigalia (opp. frui),id. ib. 2, 13, 33; so Varr. R. R. 2, 1; Dig. 4, 7, 4.—Esp., to remove, separate, make foreign: “urbs maxuma alienata,Sall. J. 48, 1.—
II. Transf. to mental objects, and with esp. reference to that from which any person or thing is separated or removed, to cast off, to alienate, estrange, set at variance, render averse, make enemies (Abalienatus dicitur, quem quis a se removerit; alienatus, qui alienus est factus, Paul. ex Fest. p. 25 Müll.; class., esp. freq. in the part. alienatus).
B. Esp.
1. Mentem alienare alicui, to take away or deprive of reason, to make crazy, insane, to drive mad (not before the Aug. per., perh. first by Livy): “erat opinio Flaccum minus compotem fuisse sui: vulgo Junonis iram alienāsse mentem ferebant,Liv. 42, 28: “signum alienatae mentis,of insanity, Suet. Aug. 99: “alienata mens,Sall. Rep. Ord. 2, 12, 6 (cf. Liv. 25, 39: alienatus sensibus).—And absol.: “odor sulfuris saepius haustus alienat,deprives of reason, Sen. Q. N. 2, 53.—Hence, pass.: “alienari mente,to be insane, Plin. 28, 8, 27, § 93: “ita alienatus mente Antiochus (erat),Vulg. 2 Macc. 5, 17.—
2. In medic. lang.: alienari, of parts of the body, to die, perish: “intestina momento alienantur,Cels. 7, 16; 8, 10; 5, 26, n. 23: “in corpore alienato,Sen. Ep. 89: “(spodium) alienata explet,Plin. 23, 4, 38, § 76.—
3. Alienari ab aliquā re, to keep at a distance from something, i. e. to be disinclined to, have an aversion for, to avoid = abhorrere (only in Cic.): “a falsā assensione magis nos alienatos esse quam a ceteris rebus,Cic. Fin. 3, 5, 18: “alienari ab interitu iisque rebus, quae interitum videantur afferre,id. ib. 3, 5, 16.
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