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carmen , ĭnis, n. (old form cas-men , Varr. L. L. p. 86 Bip.) [Sanscr. çasto declaim, praise; cf.: camilla, censeo],
I.a tune, song; poem, verse; an oracular response, a prophecy; a form of incantation (cf.: cano, cantus, and canto).
I. In gen., a tune, song, air, lay, strain, note, sound, both vocal and instrumental (mostly poet.; in prose, instead of it, cantus; cf. “also versus, numeri, modi): carmen tuba ista peregit ( = sonus),Enn. Ann. 508 Vahl.: “carmine vocali clarus citharāque Philammon,Ov. M. 11, 317; cf. “vocum,id. ib. 12, 157: “per me (sc. Apollinem) concordant carmina nervis,id. ib. 1, 518; cf. id. ib. 11, 5; “5, 340: solaque culminibus ferali carmine bubo Saepe queri,Verg. A. 4, 462; so id. G. 4, 514; Ov. M. 10, 453: “cygnorum,id. ib. 5, 387; cf. id. ib. 14, 430; Mart. 13, 77: “citharae liquidum carmen,Lucr. 4, 981; cf. id. 2, 506; Hor. C. 1, 15, 15: “lyrae carmen,Prop. 2, 1, 9 Hertzb.: “canere miserabile carmen,Ov. M. 5, 118: “harundineum,id. Tr. 4, 1, 12: “socialia carmina,id. H. 12, 139: “barbaricum,id. M. 11, 163.—With allusion to playing on the cithara: “hoc carmen hic tribunus plebis non vobis sed sibi intus canit,Cic. Agr. 2, 26, 68; cf. Aspendius.—Also the sound of waves, Claud. Cons. Mall. Th. 319; cf. Auct. Aetn. 295.—
II. Esp., a composition in verse, a poem; poetry, verse, song, whether in a broader sense, of every kind of poetic production, epic, dramatic, lyric (opp. to prose and to cantus, the melody), or, in a more restricted sense, for lyric poetry.
A. Cum hanc felicitatem non prosa modo multi sint consecuti sed etiam carmine, Quint. 10, 7, 19; cf. id. 1, 8, 2; 8, 6, 27; 10, 1, 95: “perspicuum est, et cantus (melodies) tum fuisse rescriptos vocum sonis et carmina (words),Cic. Tusc. 4, 2, 3; id. de Or. 2, 8, 34; 3, 51, 197: “carminibus cum res gestas coepere poetae Tradere,Lucr. 5, 1444: “Maeonii carminis alite,Hor. C. 1, 6, 2: “epicum carmen,Quint. 10, 1, 62: “heroici sublimitas,id. 1, 8, 5; cf. Prop. 3 (4), 3, 16. “Iliacum,Hor. A. P. 129: “historia quodammodo carmen solutum,Quint. 10, 1, 31: “Pierium,Lucr. 1, 946; 4, 21: “tragicum,Hor. A. P. 220: “carmina Livi,id. Ep. 2, 1, 69; cf. Tac. A. 11, 13: “Saliorum carmina,Varr. L. L. 3, 26; 9, 61; Quint. 1, 6, 40; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 86 Schmid.; cf. Liv. 1, 20, 4 al.: “lyricorum carmina,Quint. 9, 4, 53; Prop. 4 (5), 6, 32. “Aeolium,Hor. C. 3, 30, 13: “Lydis remixto carmine tibiis,id. ib. 4, 15, 30; cf. id. Epod. 9, 5: “carmen funebre proprie Naenia,Quint. 8, 2, 8: “carmina quae in Phaeacum epulis canuntur,Cic. Brut. 18, 71; cf. id. ib. 19, 75: “lascivum,Quint. 9, 4, 108: “obscena,satirical, abusive poems, libels, Prop. 1, 16, 10; “the same: famosum,Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 31 Schmid.: “malum,id. ib. 2, 1, 153; id. S. 2, 1. 82 Heind.: “obliquum,Stat. S. 1, 2, 27: “probrosum,Tac. A. 4, 31; cf.: “si quis carmen condidisset quod infamiam faceret flagitiumve alteri,Cic. Rep. 4, 10, 12; and Fragm. XII. Tab. 8, 1, ap. Wordsw. Fragm. and Spec. p. 259 sq.; Fischer ad Cic. Tusc. 4, 2, 4.—Phrases: “canere,Cic. Brut. 18, 71; Liv. 1, 20, 4 al.: “cantare cui,Hor. C. 3, 1, 4: “cantitare,Cic. Brut. 19, 75: CONDERE, XII. Tab. ap. Cic. Rep. 4, 10, 12; Lucr. 5, 1; Hor. S. 2, 1, 82; id. A. P. 436: “contexere,Cic. Cael. 8, 18: “disponere,Lucr. 3, 420: “pangere,id. 1, 934; 4, 9: “fingere,Hor. C. 4, 2, 32; id. Ep. 2, 1, 227; id. A. P. 331: “dicere,id. C. 4, 12, 10; id. C. S. 8: “dictare,id. S. 1, 10, 75; id. Ep. 2, 1, 110: “docere,id. C. 2, 19, 1: “ad umbilicum adducere,id. Epod. 14, 7: “deducere ad sua tempora,Ov. M. 1, 4: “fundere,Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64: “componere ad lyram,Quint. 1, 10, 29; cf. id. 11, 2, 11.—
B. Esp.
1. In a restricted sense for lyric or epic poetry: “carmine tu gaudes, hic delectatur iambis,Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 59 Schmid.; cf.: “carmina compono, hic elegos,id. ib. 2, 2, 91: amabile carmen, i. e. a love poem or song, id. ib. 1, 3, 24.—And opp. to the drama for an epic or lyric poem: “fabula, quae versatur in tragoediis atque carminibus,Quint. 2, 4, 2.—
2. A part of a great epic poem, a book, canto: “in primo carmine,Lucr. 6, 937. —
4. A response of an oracle, a prophecy, prediction: “ultima Cumaei venit jam carminis aetas,Verg. E. 4, 4; so Ov. M. 6, 582; Liv. 1, 45, 5; 23, 11, 4; 25, 12, 4; 29, 10, 6; 38, 45, 3; Tac. A. 3, 63; 4, 43; 6, 12 al.
5. A magic formula, an incantation: MALVM, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Plin. 28, 2, 4, § 17; cf. “Fragm. XII. Tab. 8, 1, a. ap. Wordsw. Fragm. and Spec. p. 260: polleantne aliquid verba et incantamenta carminum,Plin. 28, 2, 3, § 10: carmina vel caelo possunt deducere lunam; “Carminibus Circe socios mutavit Ulixi,Verg. E. 8, 69 sq.; so id. A. 4, 487; Hor. Epod. 5, 72; 17, 4; id. S. 1, 8, 19; Prop. 2 (3), 28, 35; Ov. M. 7, 137; 14, 58; Quint. 7, 3, 7; Tac. A. 2, 69; 4, 22 al.
6. On account of the very ancient practice of composing forms of religion and law in Saturnian verse, also a formula in religion or law, a form: “diro quodam carmine jurare,Liv. 10, 38, 10; 10, 41, 3; 31, 17, 9; 1, 24, 6 and 9; Plin. 28, 2, 3, § 12: “cruciatus carmina,Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 13; cf. id. Mur. 12, 26: “lex horrendi carminis erat: duumviri perduellionem judicent, etc.,of a dreadful form, Liv. 1, 26, 6: “rogationis carmen,id. 3, 64, 10.—
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