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căvĕo , cāvi, cautum, (2
I.d pers. sing. scanned cavĕs, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 19; imper. cavĕ, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 61; id. Capt. 2, 3, 71; id. Most. 1, 4, 13 et saep.: Cat. 50, 19; Hor. S. 2, 3, 38; Prop. 1, 7, 25; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 435; old sup. CAVĬTVM, C. I. L. 1, 200, 6 sq.), 3, v. n. and a. [root SKOF- or KOF-, to be wary; whence Gr. θυοσκόος, ἀκούω, etc.; Lat. causa, cura; cf. also Germ. scheuen; Engl. shy], to be on one's guard, either for one's self or (more rarely) for another; hence,
I. In gen., with and without sibi, to be on one's guard, to take care, take heed, beware, guard against, avoid, = φυλάσσομαι, and the Fr. se garder, prendre garde, etc.; constr., absol., with ub, and in a course of action with ne or ut (also ellipt. with the simple subj.); or, as in Greek, with acc. (= φυλάσσομαί τι); hence also pass. and with inf., and once with cum.
3. With cum (rare): “Hercle, mihi tecum cavendum est,with you, I must look out for myself, Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 21.—
4. With adversus, Quint. 9, 1, 20. —
C. Followed by a final clause.
1. With ne, to take heed that... not, to be on one's guard lest: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet; “cum etiam cavet, etiam cum cavisse ratus est, saepe is cautor captus est,Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5 and 6: “caves, ne videat, etc.,Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6: “ego me scio cavisse, ne ulla merito contumelia Fieri a nobis posset,id. Hec. 3, 5, 20; Afran. ap. Non. p. 111, 14; Lucr. 4, 1141: “cavete, judices, ne nova ... proscriptio instaurata esse videatur,Cic. Rosc. Am. 53, 153; id. Div. 2, 40, 84; id. Fam. 3, 12, 4; 11, 21, 4; Sall. J. 55, 3; Suet. Tib. 37: “cave, ne,Cat. 61, 152; Hor. C. 3, 7, 24; id. S. 2, 3, 177; id. Ep. 1, 6, 32; 1, 13, 19; Ov. M. 2, 89; 10, 685: “cave sis, ne,Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 215: “caveto ne,Cato, R. R. 5, 6: “caveas, ne,Hor. S. 2, 1, 80: “caveant, ne,id. A. P. 244: “cavendum est, ne,Cic. Off. 1, 39, 140; Quint. 4, 3, 8; 12, 11, 2; Suet. Tib. 67; Quint. 9, 4, 23; 5, 11, 27.—
2. With ut ne (rare): “quod ut ne accidat cavendum est,Cic. Lael. 26, 99.—
3. With a simple subj.; so only imper.: cave or cavete (cf. age), beware of, take care not, etc.: “cave geras,Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 79: “dixeris,Ter. Ad. 3, 4, 12: “faxis cave,id. And. 4, 4, 14; id. Heaut. 1, 2, 13; Hor. S. 2, 3, 38: “sis,Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 29: “contingas,Lucr. 2, 755: “despuas,Cat. 50, 19: “ignoscas,Cic. Lig. 5, 14: “existimes,id. Fam. 9, 24, 4: “putes,id. ib. 10, 12, 1 al.—Rarely with 1st pers.: “cave posthac, si me amas, umquam istuc verbum ex te audiam,Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 8; cf. id. ib. 5, 4, 9.—With 3d pers.: “resciscat quisquam,Ter. Phorm. 5, 1, 37: “te fratrum misereatur,Cic. Lig. 5, 14: “roget te,Hor. S. 2, 5, 75: “cave quisquam flocci fecerit,Plaut. Men. 5, 7, 5: “armis concurrant arma cavete,Verg. A. 11, 293.—And like age, cave with a verb in plur.: “cave dirumpatis,Plaut. Poen. prol. 117.—
4. With ut, to take care that: “cauto opu'st, Ut sobrie hoc agatur,Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 29; cf. “D. 2, infra: tertium est, ut caveamus, ut ea, quae, etc.,Cic. Off. 1, 39, 141: “quaero quid sit, quod... tam accurate caveat et sanciat, ut heredes sui dent, etc.,id. Fin. 2, 31, 101: “caverat sibi ille adulter omnium ut suorum scelerum socium te adjutoremque praebeas,id. Pis. 12, 28; Liv. 3, 10, 14; Plin. Pan. 39, 1: “cavebitur ut, etc.,Col. 2, 8, 3; cf. under II. A.—Very rarely with ut omitted, take care to, be sure to (late Lat.): “sed heus tu... cave regrediare cenā maturius,App. M. 2, p. 122, 32; 2, p. 124, 35.—
D. As act.
1. With acc. of pers. or thing against which warning is given or beed taken, to guard against, to be aware of, to beware of, etc.: “profecto quid nunc primum caveam, nescio,Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 104: “tu, quod cavere possis, stultum admittere'st,Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 23; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 437, 23: “caveamus fulminis ictum,Lucr. 6, 406: cave canem, Varr. ap. Non. p. 153, 1; Inscr. Orell. 4320; “v. canis: interventum alicujus,Cic. Att. 16, 11, 1: “omnia,id. Fam. 11, 21, 4: “me,id. Dom. 11, 28: “vallum caecum fossasque,Caes. B. C. 1, 28: “quam sit bellum cavere malum,Cic. de Or. 1, 58, 247: “vim atque opes,Tac. A. 11, 1; cf. Suet. Tib. 72: “male praecinctum puerum,id. Caes. 456: “periculum,id. ib. 81; id. Galb. 19: “insidias,id. Caes. 86; Tac. A. 13, 13: “exitum,Suet. Tib. 83: “annum,id. Ner. 40: “maculas,Hor. A. P. 353: “jurgia,Ov. A. A. 1, 591: “hunc tu caveto,Hor. S. 1, 4, 85: “proditorem,Quint. 7, 1, 30: “hoc caverat mens provida Reguli,had prevented, Hor. C. 3, 5, 13: “cave quicquam,be a little careful, Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 61.—
II. Esp.
B. In the lang. of business.
1. Cavere ab aliquo, to make one's self secure, to procure bail or surety: “tibi ego, Brute, non solvam, nisi prius a te cavero, amplius, etc.,Cic. Brut. 5, 18; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 23, § 55; cf. infra 2.; and cautio, II.—So absol.: “quid ita Flavio sibi cavere non venit in mentem,to take security, Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 35.—
2. To make one secure by bail or surety (either written or oral), to give security, to guarantee (cf. supra 1., and cautio; “syn.: spondeo, cautionem praesto),Cic. Clu. 59, 162; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 54, § 142: “pecunia, quam mihi Stichus Titii servus caverat,Dig. 46, 3, 89: “cavere summam,ib. 29, 2, 97: “chirographum,ib. 46, 3, 89: “cautionem,ib. 46, 8, 6: “civitates obsidibus de pecuniā cavent,Caes. B. G. 6, 2: “quoniam de obsidibus inter se cavere non possent,id. ib. 7, 2; cf. Liv. 9, 42; 24, 2: “cavere capite pro re aliquā,Plin. 34, 7, 17, § 38: “jurejurando et chirographo de re,Suet. Calig. 12: “cavere in duplum,id. Aug. 41; Tac. A. 6, 17.—Rarely, cavere personae publicae, to give security before a public authority, Just. Inst. 1, 11, 3.—
C. In boxing, etc., to parry, to ward off a blow: “adversos ictus cavere ac propulsare,Quint. 9, 1, 20; 5, 13, 54; cf. id. 9, 4, 8; 4, 2, 26.—
D. Cavere alicui.
1. To keep something from one, to protect, have a care for, make safe, take care of (cf.: “prohibeo, defendo, provideo): scabiem pecori et jumentis caveto,Cato, R. R. 5, 7: “melius ei cavere volo, quam ipse aliis solet,Cic. Fam. 3, 1, 3: “mihi meisque,id. Top. 1, 4; id. Fam. 7, 6, 2: “veterani, quibus hic ordo diligentissime caverat,id. Phil. 1, 2, 6; cf.: qui in Oratore tuo caves tibi per Brutum, Caes. ap. Cic. Fam. 6, 7, 4: “quique aliis cavit, non cavet ipsi sibi,Ov. A. A. 1, 84: “securitati,Suet. Tit. 6: “concordiae publicae,Vell. 2, 48, 5; Petr. 133; Sil. 8, 493.—
2. Affirmatively, to take care for, attend to a thing for a person, provide: Ba. Haec ita me orat sibi qui caveat aliquem ut hominem reperiam... Id, amabo te, huic caveas. Pi. Quid isti caveam? Plaut. Bacch. 1, 1, 8; 1, 1, 10; cf. I. C. 3. supra.—Hence, cautus , a, um, P. a.
A. Neutr., careful, circumspect, wary, cautious, provident (syn.: providus, prudens; “class. in prose and poetry): ut cautus est, ubi nihil opu'st,Ter. Phorm. 4, 5, 3: “parum cauti providique,Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 117: “cauti in periculis,id. Agr. 1, 9, 27: “in scribendo,id. Q. Fr. 3, 9, 3: “in credendo,id. Att. 10, 9, 3: “in verbis serendis,Hor. A. P. 46: “mensor,Ov. M. 1, 136: “mariti,id. ib. 9, 751: “lupus,Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 50: “vulpes,id. ib. 1, 1, 73 et saep.: “quem certi homines monuerunt, ut cautior esset,Cic. Sest. 18, 41: “dubium cautior an audentior,Suet. Caes. 58.—Constr. with ad: “ad praesentius malum cautiores,Liv. 24, 32, 3; Tib. 1, 9, 46; Quint. 6, 1, 20. —With adversus: “parum cautus adversus colloquii fraudem,Liv. 38, 25, 7.—With erga: “erga bona sua satis cautus,Curt. 10, 1, 40.—With contra: “contra quam (fortunam) non satis cauta mortalitas est,Curt. 8, 4, 24.—With inf.: “cautum dignos assumere,Hor. S. 1, 6, 51.—With gen.: “rei divinae,Macr. S. 1, 15.—
b. Transf. to inanimate things: “consilium,Cic. Phil. 13, 3, 6; Tac. A. 11, 29: “cautissima senectus,id. H. 2, 76: “pectus,Prop. 3 (4), 5, 8.manus,Ov. F. 2, 336: “terga,id. Tr. 1, 9, 20: “arma,Sil. 14, 188: “timor,Ov. Tr. 3, 4, 65.—Subst.: cauta , ōrum, n.: “legum,the provisions, Cassiod. Var. 5, 14.—
B. Pass. (acc. to I. B. 1., and II. B.), made safe, secured: “cautos nominibus rectis expendere nummos,Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 105: “cautus ab incursu belli,Luc. 4, 409: quo mulieri esset res cautior (that her property might be made more secure), curavit, ut, etc., Cic. Caecin. 4, 11.—
2. Trop., safe, secure (rare): “in eam partem peccare, quae est cautior,Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 56: “(civitates) murorum firmitate cautissimae,Amm. 14, 8, 13.—Adv.: cau- .
2. (Acc. to caveo, I. B. 1.) With security, cautiously, Cic. Leg. 2, 21, 53: “aliter nec caute nec jure fieri potest,id. Att. 15, 17, 1.
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