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circum properly acc. from circus = κίρκος, adv. and prep., designates either an entire encompassing or surrounding of an object, or a proximity only partially em. bracing or comprehending it,
I.around, about, all around, περί, ἀμφί
I. Adv.
A. Around, round about, all around, etc., πέριξ: “furcas circum offigito,Cato, R. R. 48, 2; Varr. R. R. 3, 14, 1; “Verg A 3, 230: quia (locus) vastis circum saltibus claudebatur,Tac. A. 4, 25: “molli circum est ansas amplexus acantho,Verg. E. 3, 45: “age tu interim Da cito ab Delphio Cantharum circum,Plaut. Most. 1, 4, 33: “quae circum essent opera tueri,Caes. B. C 2, 10: “interea Rutuli portis circum omnibus instant,Verg. A. 10, 118 (i. e. circumcirca fusi: “nam modo circum adverbium loci est, Serv.): omnem, quae nuno .umida circum Caligat, nu. bem eripiam,id. ib. 2, 605; Tib. 1, 3, 77; 1, 5, 11. sed circum tutae sub moenibus urbis aquantur, round about under the walls, Verg. G 4, 193. faciundum haras quadratas circum binos pedes, all around, i. e. on every side, two feet, Varr. R. R. 3, 10, 3 Schneid.—
b. Strengthened with undique (in later Latin also sometimes written as one word, circumundique ), from everywhere around, around on all sides: “circum Undique convenere,Verg. A. 4, 416; Lucr. 3, 404: “clausis circum undique portis,Stat. S. 2, 5, 13; 5, 1, 155; id. Th. 2, 228: “oppositu circumundique aliarum aedium,Gell. 4, 5, 3; 13, 24, 1; 14, 2, 9; “so with totus and omnis,Varr. R. R. 3, 14, 1; Verg. A. 10, 118.—
B. Of an incomplete circuit, esp. of the part that meets the view, lies on the hither side, etc. (v. under II.): “hostilibus circum litoribus,Tac. A. 2, 24: “aestas... aperto circum pelago peramoena,id. ib. 4, 67: “gentibus innumeris circum infraque relictis,Ov. M. 4, 668; Stat. Achill. 1, 56: “corpus servans circumque supraque vertitur,id. Th. 9, 114; Albin. Carm. ap. Maecen. 46.
II. Prep. with acc.
A. Around, abow (implying a complete circuit): “armillas quattuor facito, quas circum orbem indas,Cato, R. R. 21, 4: “terra circum axem se summā celeritate convertit,Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; Quint. 2, 17, 19 Zumpt N. cr.: “ligato circum collum sudario,Suet. Ner. 51: “terque novas circum felix eat hostia fruges,Verg. G. 1, 345: “at genitor circum caput omne micantes Deposuit radios,Ov. M. 2, 40.—
C. Circum very freq. expresses, not a relative motion around a given central point, but an absol. circular movement, in which several objects named form separate points of a periphery, in, into, among... around, to... around, etc.: “te adloquor, Quae circum vicinos vages,Plaut. Mil. 2, 5, 14: ego Arpini volo esse pridie Cal., deinde circum villulas nostras errare, not round about our villas, but in our villas around, Cic. Att. 8, 9, 3; cf Hor. S. 1, 6, 58: “tum Naevius pueros circum amicos dimittit,to friends around, Cic. Quint. 6, 25; Suet. Ner. 47: “cum praetorem circum omnia fora sectaretur,Cic. Verr 2, 2, 70, § 169: “Apronius ducebat eos circum civitates,id. ib. 2, 3, 26, § “65: ille circum hospites cursabat,id. ib. 2, 4, 19, § “41: lenonem quondam Lentuli concursare circum tabernas,id. Cat. 4, 8, 17: “dimissis circum municipia litteris,Caes. B. C. 3, 22: “circum oram maritimam misit, ut, etc.,Liv. 29, 24, 9: “legatio sub idem tempus in Asiam et circum insulas missa,id. 42, 45, 1; Suet. Aug. 64; id. Caes. 41; id. Calig. 28; 41; Hor. S. 2, 3, 281; id. Ep 1, 1, 49: et te circum omnes alias irata puellas Differet, to or among all the other maidens around, Prop. 1, 4, 21
D. With the prevailing idea of neighborhood, vicinity, in the environs of, in the vicinity of, at, near: “circum haec loca commorabor,Cic. Att. 3, 17, 2; Pompei ib. 8, 12, C, 1 exercitu in foro et in omnibus templis, quae circum forum sunt, conlocato, Cic. Opt. Gen. 4, 10: “urbes, quae circum Capuam sunt,id. Agr. 1, 7, 20: “cum tot essent circum hastam illam,id. Phil. 2, 26, 64 Wernsd. N. cr.: “non succurrit tibi, quamdiu circum Bactra haereas?Curt. 7, 8, 21, Tac. A. 4, 74. —
E. Of persons who surround one (as attendants, friends, etc.); in Gr.περι or ἀμφί τινα: “paucae, quae circum illam essent,Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 33; Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4: “omnium flagitiorum atque facinorum circum se tamquam stipatorum catervas habebat,Sall. C. 14, 1; cf. id. ib. 26, 4: “Hectora circum,Verg. A. 6, 166.—Circum pedes for ad pedes, of servants in attendance, is rare, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 36, § 92; “v ad, I. D. 3. b.—!*? Circum is sometimes placed after its subst.,Varr. L. L. 5, § 31 Müll., Lucr 1, 937; 4, 220; 6, 427; Cic. N. D. 2, 41, 105; Verg. E. 8, 12; 8, 74; 9, 40; id. A. 1, 32; 2, 515; 2, 564; 3, 75: 6, 166; 6, 329; 9, 440; Tib. 1, 1, 23; 1, 5, 51; Stat. Th. 3, 395.—
III. In composition the m remains unchanged before consonants; before vowels it was, acc. to Prisc. p. 567 P., and Cassiod. p. 2294 ib., written in like manner, but (except before j and v) not pronounced. Yet in the best MSS. we find the orthography circuitio, circuitus, and even circueo together with circumeo; cf. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 736 sq. —Signif.,
a. Acc. to II. A.: circumcido, circumcludo, circumculco, circumfluo, circumfodio, circumfundo, etc.—
b. Acc. to II. B.: circumcolo, circumflecto, circumjaceo, circumicio.—
c. Acc. to II. C.: circumcellio, circumcurso, circumduco, circumfero, circumforaneus.—In many compounds, circum has sometimes one and sometimes another signif., as in circumdo, circumeo, circumsisto, etc.; v. h. vv.—!*? With verbs compounded with circum, this preposition is never repeated before the following object; e. g. circumcursare circum aliquid and similar phrases are not found.
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