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clādes , is (
I.gen. plur. usu. cladium, Liv. 2, 63, 7; 5, 22, 8 et saep.: “cladum,Sil. 1, 41; 7, 505; 9, 353; 16, 672; Amm. 29, 1, 14; 32, 2, 1), f. kindr. with Sanscr. klath, laedere; Gr. κλάω, to break, break in pieces; cf.: per - cello, clava, gladius.
I. Prop., a breaking, beating, dashing to pieces; hence,
A. In gen., destruction, devastation, injury, mischief, harm, misfortune, disaster, loss, detriment, calamity (cf.: calamitas, pernicies; “class. and freq.): clades calamitasque, intemperies modo in nostram advenit domum,Plaut. Capt. 4, 4, 3: “haec igitur subito clades nova pestilitasque Aut in aquas cadit aut fruges persidit in ipsas,Lucr. 6, 1125: “dare late cladem magnasque ruinas,id. 5, 347: “etsi cursum ingeni tui, Bruti, premit haec inportuna clades civitatis,Cic. Brut. 97, 332: “atque haec vetusta... Luctifica clades nostro infixa est corpori,id. Tusc. 2, 10, 25: “et illam meam cladem... maximum esse rei publicae volnus judicastis,id. Sest. 13, 31: “cum tibi ad pristinas cladis accessio fuisset Aetoliae repentinus interitus,id. Pis. 37, 91: “quod si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset, profecto magna clades atque calamitas rem publicam oppressisset,Sall. C. 39, 4: “captae urbis Romanae clades,Liv. 5, 21, 16: “publica,Tac. A. 14, 64: “tum urbs tota eorum conruit et Taygeti montis magna pars... abrupta cladem eam insuper ruinā pressit,Plin. 2, 79, 81, § 191: “plus populationibus quam proeliis cladium fecit (cf. B. 1. infra),Liv. 8, 2, 8: “quidve superbia spurcitia ac petulantia? Quantas Efficiunt clades!Lucr. 5, 48: “aliam quamvis cladem inportare pericli,id. 5, 369: “agrum omni belli clade pervastat,Liv. 22, 4, 1: “colonias belli clade premi,Curt. 9, 7, 22: “colonias omni clade vastare,id. 4, 1, 10: “majestas populi Romani... vastata cladibus fuerat,Plin. 16, 32, 57, § 132: “per sex dies septemque noctes clade saevitum est,of the burning of Rome, Suet. Ner. 38: “quo tantae cladis pretio,” i. e. the burning of the Capitol, Tac. H. 3, 72; id. A. 13, 57: “recens,the destruction of the amphitheatre, id. A. 4, 63 sq.: “Lugdunensis,the burning of Lyons, id. ib. 16, 13 Nipp. ad loc.—With gen. obj.: “si denique Italia a dilectu, urbs ab armis, sine Milonis clade numquam esset conquietura,without ruining Milo, Cic. Mil. 25, 68: tum privatae per domos clades vulgatae sunt, the losses of particular families at Cannae, Liv. 22, 56, 4.—Poet.: “cladibus, exclamat, Saturnia, pascere nostris,Ov. M. 9, 176: “Trojae renascens alite lugubri Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur,Hor. C. 3, 3, 62.—
B. Esp.
1. In war or battle, a disaster, defeat, overthrow, discomfiture, massacre: “ni pedites cum equitibus permixti magnam cladem in congressu facerent,Sall. J. 59, 3: “exercitatior hostis magnā clade eos castigavit,Liv. 39, 1, 4: “iret ut... subitā turbaret clade Latinos,Verg. A. 12, 556: “quodsi... supervenisset, ingens clades accipi potuit,Curt. 4, 12, 15; “so freq.: accipere cladem,to be defeated, beaten, Liv. 3, 26, 3; 5, 11, 5; 8, 12, 17; “22, 51, 11: apud Chaeroneam accepta,Quint. 9, 2, 62: “classe devictā multas ipsi lacrimas, magnam populo Romano cladem attulit,Cic. N.D. 2, 3, 7: “postquam is... contractae cladi superesset... fusa est Romana acies,Liv. 25, 19, 16: “omnibus pacis modo incurrisse agentibus magna clades inlata,id. 29, 3, 8: “non vulnus super vulnus sed multiplex clades,id. 22, 54, 9: paene exitiabilem omnibus cladem intulit, Vell. 2, 112, 4: “tantā mole cladis obrui,Liv. 22, 54, 10: “terrestri simul navalique clade obruebantur,Curt. 4, 3, 14; Sen. Med. 207: clades illa pugnae Cannensis vastissima, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 5, 17, 5: “binaque castra clade unā deleta,Liv. 30, 6, 6: “exercituum,Tac. A. 3, 6; 3, 73; Sall. H. 1, 41, 5 Dietsch: “quis cladem illius noctis fando Explicet,Verg. A. 2, 362: “Germanica,Tac. H. 4, 12: “Variana,id. A. 1, 57: “Pharsaliam Philippos et Perusiam ac Mutinam, nota publicarum cladium nomina loquebantur,id. H. 1, 50. —Poet.: “ut barbarorum Claudius agmina ... diruit... Primosque et extremos metendo Stravit humum, sine clade victor (i.e. of his own men),Hor. C. 4, 14, 32.—
3. Of the loss of a limb: “Mucius, cui postea Scaevolae a clade dextrae manūs cognomen inditum,Liv. 2, 13, 1.—
II. Transf.
A. Of persons who bring destruction, etc., a destroyer, scourge, pest: “geminos, duo fulmina belli, Scipiadas, cladem Libyae,Verg. A. 6, 843: “haec clades,of Heliogabalus, Lampr. Heliog. 34, 1: illa, of immodest women as a class, id. Alex. Sev. 34, 4.—
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