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clēmens , entis (abl. usu. -ti;
I.but -te,Liv. 1, 26, 8; Laber. ap. Macr. S. 2, 7, 3), adj. etym. dub.; cf. lemures; and Germ. hold.
I. Orig. (in the class. per. very rare), of the quiet, placid, pleasant state of the air, wind, or weather, mild, calm, soft, gentle ( = the class. placidus, quietus): undae clementi flamine pulsae, * Cat. 64, 272: “clementior Auster vela vocat,Stat. Th. 5, 468: “aura Favoni,Claud. Cons. Prob. Olyb. 272; cf. id. III. Cons. Hon. 165; Val. Fl. 6, 747: “clementior dies,Col. 11, 2, 2: “clementior Arctos,Sil. 1, 198: “clementiores plagae (opp. Septentrio),Pall. Febr. 12, 1.—Hence,
B. Esp.
1. Of the gentle motion of the sea, rivers, etc., placid, calm, etc.: “mare,Gell. 2, 21, 1: “Pasitigris clementiore alveo praeterit, etc. (preced. by: praeceps inter saxa devolvitur),Curt. 5, 3, 1: “quā sit clementissimus amnis,Ov. M. 9, 116.—
2. Of places (opp. praeceps), smooth, of a gentle ascent: “clivulus,App. M. 4, p. 144.—Far more freq.,
II. Trop.
2. Transf. to animals. tame, domesticated: clementius genus columbarum (opp. agrestes), Varr. R. R. 3, 7, 2.—
B. Specif.
1. Mild in respect to the faults and failures of others, i. e. forbearing, indulgent, compassionate, merciful (class.; syn.: mitis, benignus, humanus, lenis, facilis, indulgens; “opp.: crudelis, inhumanus, asper al.): clementi (mi) animo ignoscet,Plaut. Mil. 4, 6, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 22: “judices et misericordes,Cic. Planc. 13, 31; cf. * Hor. C. 3, 11, 46; Tac. A. 2, 57: “vir et contra audaciam fortissimus et ab innocentiā clementissimus,Cic. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; Nep. Epam. 3, 2: “legis interpres,Liv. 1, 26, 8: “dominus facilis et clemens,Suet. Aug. 67: “justa et clemens servitus,Ter. And. 1, 1, 9: “castigatio,Cic. Off. 1, 38, 137: “clementior sententia,Liv. 8, 31, 8.—More unusual: rumor, i. e. non nimius, mild, mitigated, πρᾶος (acc. to Prisc. p. 1202 P.), Sall. J. 22, 1.—
2. Poet. of places: “pars (insulae) ratibus clemens,accessible, Claud. B. Gild. 511.—Adv.: clē-menter .
I. (Acc. to I. A.) Gently, softly, mildly: “non desiit adsidue tremere Campania, clementius quidem, sed ingenti damno,Sen. Q. N. 6, 31, 1: “agitant venti oleas,Pall. Nov. 5: “spirant clementius Austri,Stat. S. 2, 2, 27.—So of moderate, slow action gen.: Eu. Sequere sis. Ch. Sequor. Eu. Clementer quaeso; “calces deteris,Plaut. Merc. 5, 2, 111; so id. Stich. 4, 1, 26; id. Ep. 2, 2, 23. —
B. (Acc. to I. B. 2.) By degrees, gradually, gently: “clementer et molliter assurgens collis,Col. 2, 2, 1; cf. Tac. A. 13, 38: “editum jugum,id. G. 1; Sil. 1, 274; Sen. Oedip. 280: “accedere,Tac. A. 12, 33; cf. in comp.: “explorare, si quā Appennini juga clementius adirentur,id. H. 3, 52.—
II. (Acc. to II. A.) Quietly, placidly, tranquilly, calmly: accipere aliquid clementius aequo, * Lucr. 3, 314: “si quid est factum clementer, ut dissolute factum criminer,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 8, § 19: “leniter hominem clementerque accepit,id. ib. 2, 4, 40, § “86: ferre aliquid,id. Att. 6, 1, 3: “consolationes clementer admotae,Plin. Ep. 5, 16, 11: “quo id pacto fieri possit clementissime,Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 5: “leo caudam clementer et blande movet,Gell. 5, 14, 12.—
B. (Acc. to II. B.) With forbearance, mildly, with indulgence: “clementer et moderate jus dicere,Caes. B. C. 3, 20: “clementer a consule accepti,Liv. 27, 15, 2: “clementer ductis militibus,” i.e. peacefully, without plundering, id. 29, 2, 1.— Comp.: “clementius tractare aliquem,Plin. Ep. 8, 24, 5.—Sup.: “clementissime scribere de aliquo,Gell. 1, 18, 3: “qui victoriā civili clementissime usus est,Sen. Ira, 2, 23, 4.
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