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com-mūnis (comoinis , S. C. de Bacch.), e, adj. con and root mu-, to bind; Sanscr. mav-; cf.: immunis, munus, moenia,
I.that is common to several or to all, common, general, universal, public (opp. proprius, that belongs to one: “quod commune cum alio est, desinet esse proprium,Quint. 7, 3, 24; cf. id. 2, 4, 40; 7, 1, 28; 8, 5, 6; 10, 1, 16; 12, 10, 42; 12, 3, 7; v. also the foll.; freq. in all periods and every species of composition); constr. with cum, dat., inter se, or absol.
I. Prop.: “vetus verbum hoc quidem est: Communia esse amicorum inter se omnia,Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 18: “vinea vulpibus et hominibus,Varr. R. R. 1, 8, 5: “sepulcrum Asiae Europaeque Troja,Cat. 68, 89: “is fit ei cum Roscio communis,Cic. Rosc. Com. 10, 27; cf.: “alterum nobis cum dis, alterum cum beluis commune est,Sall. C. 1, 2; Nep. Timol. 1, 4.—Esp. freq. in the formula aliquid cum aliquo commune habere: “vetustas habet aliquid commune cum multis, amor non habet,Cic. Fam. 11, 27, 2: “cum rerum naturā... quid habere potest commune... gallinaceum fel,id. Div. 2, 12, 29: “controversia. quae communes minime cum aliis quaestiones habet,Quint. 5, 10, 110: “illum... nihil vobiscum commune habentem,Sen. Const. 15, 2: “sciat, se nihil mecum habere commune,id. Ben. 7, 12, 2: “omnia cum amico communia habebit, qui multa cum homine,id. Ep. 48, 3; 74, 17; id. Q. N. 2, 37, 2: nec habet (pecudum natura) quidquam commune cum caelo, Lact. de Ira Dei, 7, 4; 8, 3; App. de Deo Socr. 13; Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 9; Sen. Contr. 1, 1, 25, B: “vitium commune omnium est,Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 30; cf. Cic. Sen. 11, 35; Lucr. 5, 260; 3, 326; 5, 555: “communis imperii (i. e. Romani) fines,Cic. Balb. 5, 13; cf. “libertas,id. Sest. 1, 1: “salus,id. ib. 6, 15: “utilitas,Nep. Alcib. 4, 6: “mors,natural, Eutr. 7, 8: “verba,” i. e. prose, Claud. Epig. 81, 3: “jus gentium,Nep. Them. 7, 4 et saep.: vitae ignarus, ignorant of life, i. e. of the customs of society, Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7; cf.: “sensu caret,of a sense of propriety, Hor. S. 1, 3, 66 Heind.; cf.: “sit in beneficio sensus communis,Sen. Ben. 1, 12, 3; id. Ep. 5, 4; 105, 3; Quint. 1, 2, 20; cf. “also: communium litterarum et politioris humanitatis expers,Cic. de Or. 2, 17, 72: “communis locus, euphem.,the lower world, Plaut. Cas. prol. 19; and for a brothel, Sen. Contr. 1, 2, p. 83 Bip.—In plur.: “loca,public places, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 46, § 112; id. Fam. 13, 11, 1; “but loci, in philos. lang.,a commonplace, common topic, id. de Or. 3, 27, 106; id. Or. 36, 126; Quint. 2, 1, 9; 2, 1, 11; 5, 1, 3; 5, 12, 15; v. locus.—
B. Subst.: commūne , is, n., that which is common.
1. In gen., plur.: “ut communibus pro communibus utatur, privatis ut suis,Cic. Off. 1, 7, 20: “paucis ostendi gemis et communia laudas,publicity, Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 4; Ov. M. 13, 271.—In sing.: “de communi aliquid consequi,Dig. 17, 2, 52; so Paul. Sent. 1, 18, § 3: “jus communi dividundo,Cic. Fam. 7, 12, 2; cf. Gai Inst. 4, 42; Dig. 2, 1, 11, § 2 al.—
2. Esp. = τὸ κοινόν, a community, state: commune Latium, Cinc. ap. Fest. p. 241, 18 Müll.: “Commune Milyadum,Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 38, § 95: “Siciliae,id. ib. 2, 2, 46, § 114; 2, 2, 59, § 145; “2, 2, 63, § 154: gentis Pelasgae,Ov. M. 12, 7; cf.: “communis Graecia,id. ib. 13, 199; and: res communis = respublica, Sisenn. ap. Non. p. 522, 17.—
b. In commune.
(α). For common use, for all, for a common object, end, advantage, etc.: “metuere,Plaut. As. 2, 2, 20: “consulere,Ter. And. 3, 3, 16; Tac. A. 12, 5: “conferre,Cic. Quint. 3, 12; id. Inv. 2, 3, 8: “vocare honores,” i. e. to bestow equally upon patricians and plebeians, Liv. 6, 40, 18: “profutura,Quint. 6, 1, 7: “laborare (apes),id. 5, 11, 24.—Rarely in communi: “ponere libertatem,Tac. A. 13, 27.—
(β). In general, generally (in post-Aug. prose): “de jure omni disputandum,Quint. 7, 1, 49; Plin. 17, 1, 1, § 9; Tac. G. 27; 38; 40 al.
II. Trop.
A. That represents the common sentiment, democratic: “qui in bello... suo et certorum hominum consilio uteretur, eum magis communem censemus in victoriā futurum fuisse, etc.,Cic. Fam. 4, 9, 2.—
B. Of manners, accessible, familiar, courteous, condescending, affable (kindr. in sense with comis; hence in MSS. very freq. interchanged with it; “v. comis): simplicem et communem et consentientem eligi (amicum) par est,Cic. Lael. 18, 65; so id. Fam. 4, 9, 2: “communis infimis, par principibus,Nep. Att. 3, 1; so Eutr. 8, 5; cf. communitas.—Comp., Suet. Claud. 21 dub. (al. comior).—Sup., Suet. Vesp. 22 dub. (al. comissimus).—
C. T. t.
1. In rhet.: “commune exordium, quod nihilo minus in hanc quam in contrariam partem causae potest convenire,equally appropriate to either side of a cause, Cic. Inv. 1, 18, 26; cf. Quint. 4, 1, 71; Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11; Cic. de Or. 2, 78, 319.—
2. In gram.: verbum, a common verb, i. e. one that has both an active and passive signification, Gell. 15, 13, 1; Prisc. p. 787 P.: syllaba = anceps, i. e. either long or short, Don. p. 1389 P.; Charis. p. 3 ib.; Diom. p. 423 ib.: “genus,of both masculine and feminine gender, Charis. p. 126 ib. et saep.— Hence, Advv.
1. Class. form commū-nĭter , together, in common, jointly, generally (very freq.), Varr. R. R. 2, 10; Cic. Off. 3, 20, 80; id. Rosc. Am. 37, 108; id. N. D. 2, 48, 123; Nep. Pelop. 2, 2; Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 13; Ov. M. 6, 262.—Opp. proprie, Quint. 9, 1, 23; “opp. separatim,Cic. Fam. 13, 12, 1; cf. id. Arch. 12, 32.—* Comp., Diom. p. 480 P.—
2. commūnĭtus : deos colere, Varr. ap. Non. p. 510, 5.
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