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con-firmo , āvi, ātum, 1,
I.v. a., to make firm, establish, strengthen, confirm (class., esp. in prose).
I. In gen. (prop. and trop.): “stipites confirmare et stabilire,Caes. B. G. 7, 73: “ali hōc vires nervosque confirmari putant,id. ib. 6, 21: “dentis mobilis,Plin. 28, 11, 49, § 178; cf. Scrib. Comp. 57; 59 sq.: “confirmare et densare defluentem capillum,Plin. 25, 11, 83, § 132: “crus debile,Suet. Vesp. 7; cf. id. Aug. 80: “maxime religando confirmant parietum soliditatem,Vitr. 2, 8, 7: “castellum magnis munitionibus multisque tormentis, Auct. B. Alex. 21, 5: intestina,” i. e. to heal, cure, Cels. 4, 19: “cicatriculam,id. 2, 10 fin.: se, to recover physically, to grow well (corresp. with convalescere), Cic. Fam. 16, 1, 2; 16, 3, 1; 16, 4, 4; 16, 1, 1.—Transf., of the vine, Col. 4, 3, 4: “valetudinem,Cic. Att. 10, 17, 2: “pacem et amicitiam cum proximis civitatibus,Caes. B. G. 1, 3; cf.: “confirmare societatem datā ac acceptā fide,Sall. C. 44, 3: “opes factionis,id. ib. 32, 2; cf.: “viris suas,Vell. 2, 44, 2: “suam manum,Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 24: “se transmarinis auxiliis,Caes. B. C. 1, 29: “conjurationem,Nep. Dion, 8, 3: “regnum Persarum,id. Milt. 3, 5; so, “regnum,Suet. Caes. 9: “imperium,id. Vit. 9: “decreta,to confirm, Nep. Phoc. 3, 2: “acta Caesaris,Cic. Att. 16, 16, C, 12: “acta alicujus in transmarinis provinciis,Vell. 2, 44, 2: “beneficia edicto,Suet. Tit. 8: “provinciam a Caesare datam,id. Aug. 10.—
II. Esp.
A. To confirm or strengthen courage, to instil courage into one, to encourage, inspirit, animate, embolden: “animum meum,to take heart, take courage, Plaut. Aul. 2, 8, 1: “animum sapientissimi hominis,Cic. Fam. 6, 6, 2; id. Quint. 24, 77: “maximi animi hominem,id. ib. 4, 8, 1: “animos ratione,Lucr. 1, 426: “confirmare et excitare afflictos animos bonorum,Cic. Att. 1, 16, 8: “animos Gallorum verbis,Caes. B. G. 1, 33; Sall. C. 46, 3: “vacillantium gentium animos,Vell. 2, 120, 1: “suos ad dimicandum animo,Caes. B. G. 5, 49: “milites,id. ib. 5, 52: “timentes,id. ib. 7, 7; cf.: “diffidentem rebus suis,Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 23: “territos,Sall. J. 38, 5: “perterritos,Suet. Caes. 66; id. Aug. 43: “Massilienses obsidione laborantes adventu suo,id. Ner. 2: “animum suum ad virtutem,Auct. Her. 4, 22, 31 Klotz (al. conformavit): “nepotem suum ad successionem imperii,Suet. Tib. 55 fin.: “nunc erige te et confirma,take courage, Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 5: “cum ipse te confirmasses,hast acquired courage, id. Quint. 11, 39; cf.: “confirmant ipsi se,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 36, § 95; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 1, 14 al.: “eos multa pollicendo confirmat, uti Romam pergerent,Sall. J. 23, 2: “alius alium confirmare, ne nomina darent,Liv. 2, 24, 2.—Aliquem alicui rei: gladiatores Lentulus libertati confirmat, encourages them to freedom, i. e. incites them to make themselves worthy of freedom, Caes. B. C. 1, 14, 4 dub. (Dinter and Kraner: “spe libertatis).—With abstr. objects: reliqui temporis spem,Cic. Div. in Caecil. 22, 71: “spem alicujus,Suet. Calig. 12: “suspitionem,id. Tib. 52; cf.: “sensus rectus et confirmatus,Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 2.—
B. To confirm one in his disposition or feelings, in his fidelity (rare): “insulas bene animatas,Nep. Cim. 2, 4: “homines,Caes. B. C. 1, 15: “Gallias,Vell. 2, 120.—
C. To confirm, give full assurance of, a fact, corroborate an assertion, settle, fix, establish, to prove, demonstrate the truth of a thing, etc. (very freq.): “confirmare nostra argumentis ac rationibus, deinde contraria refutare,Cic. de Or. 2, 19, 80; “so opp. refutare,Quint. 5, prooem. § 2; 5, 13, 53; cf. “opp. refellere,id. 3, 9, 6; 12, 1, 45; “opp. diluere,id. 9, 2, 80: “confirmare aut infirmare rem,Cic. Inv. 1, 30, 49: “divinationem,id. Div. 1, 32, 71; cf. id. ib. 2, 32, 78: “quorum omnium testimoniis de hac Dionis pecuniā confirmatum est,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 8, § 23: “crimen commenticium,id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42: “haec istius vituperatio atque infamia confirmabatur eorum sermone, qui, etc.,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 38, § 101: “perjurium,id. ib. 2, 4, 9, § “19: iste locus est tibi etiam atque etiam confirmandus,id. Fin. 5, 32, 95: “his rebus confirmatis,Caes. B. G. 6, 6 Kraner ad loc. —With acc. and inf., Lucr. 2, 185; cf. id. 2, 179; 5, 198.—Pass. impers., with ne: “sanctissimo jurejurando confirmari oportere, ne tecto recipiatur, qui non, etc.,Caes. B. G. 7, 66 fin.: “hoc idem visum esse ex superioribus castellis confirmaverunt,id. B. C. 3, 67; cf.: “hoc ex ipsis caeli rationibus ausim Confirmare, nequaquam esse creatam, etc.,Lucr. 2, 179.—Hence,
A. (In acc. with II. A.) Encouraged, courageous, resolute: “animus certus et confirmatus,Cic. Quint. 24, 77; so, “sensus rectus et confirmatus,id. Fam. 1, 8, 2: “confirmatiorem exercitum efficere,Caes. B. C. 3, 84.—
B. (Acc. to II. C.) Asserted, affirmed: “in quibus (litteris) erat confirmatius idem illud, etc.,Cic. Att. 10, 15, 1.—
C. (Proved; hence,) Certain, credible: “quod eo confirmatius erit, si, etc.,Cic. Inv. 2, 11, 35: fides confirmatissima, most fixed, Porph. ad Hor. S. 1, 5, 27.—* Adv.: confirmātē (in acc. with I.), firmly, Auct. Her. 4, 11, 16.
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