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dum ,
I.conj. [for dium, acc. from dius; cf. diu, Corss. Ausspr. 2, 856], denotes the temporal relation of two actions to cach other,
I. As contemporaneous, or,
II. As in immediate succession, so that with the commencement of one action the other ceases.
I. As contemporaneous.
A. Without respect to the limits of the two actions, while, whilst, during the time in which.
1. In gen., construed with the indicative, except in oratio obliqua, where the subjunctive was sometimes used. In Aug. poets and late prose the subjunctive often stands in oratio directa, v. the following).
(α). Indic. praes.: “dum cum hac usuraria Uxore mihi nunc morigero, haec curata sint Fac sis,Plaut. Am. 3, 3, 25; so id. Aul. 4, 2, 14; id. Bacch. 4, 7, 19; Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 11; Cic. Clu. 32 fin.; Verg. E. 3, 75; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 190 et saep.— In the praes. histor.: “dum haec loquimur, interea loci ad macellum ubi advenimus, etc.,Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 24; id. Phorm. 5, 9, 18; Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 15; id. Div. in Caec. 17, 56: “dum haec geruntur, Caesari nuntiatum est, etc.,Caes. B. G. 1, 46, 1; cf. “these forms of transition,id. ib. 3, 17, 1; 4, 32, 1; 4, 34, 3; 5, 22, 1; 6, 7, 1; 7, 57, 1; id. B. C. 1, 56, 1; 2, 1, 1 et saep. dum ea conquiruntur et conferuntur, nocte intermissa circiter hominum milia VI ad Rhenum contenderunt, Caes. B. G. 1, 27, 4; cf. id. B. C. 1, 37, 1; id. ib. 1, 36, 1; Liv. 21, 7, 1; Verg. G. 4, 559.—In the imperf.: “dum haec in Appulia gerebantur, Samnites ... urbem non tenuerunt,Liv. 10, 36 fin.; 21, 53; 41, 14; Nep. Hann. 2, 4; Tac. Agr. 41; cf.: “dum is in aliis rebus erat occupatus,Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91—In the fut.; nunc animum advortite Dum argumentum hujus eloquar comoediae, Plaut. Am. prol. 96.—In the perf.: “dum Cyri et Alexandri similis esse voluit, Crassorum inventus est dissimillimus,Cic. Brut. 81, 292; so id. Mur. 27, 55; id. Fin. 2, 13; id. Phil. 14, 12, 33; id. Att. 1, 16, 2; Nep. Reg. 2, 2 al.—In the pluperf.: “dum in unam partem oculos animosque hostium certamen averterat, pluribus locis scalis capitur murus,Liv. 32, 24.—In the fut. perf.: “bellum ingens geret Italia... Tertia dum Latio regnantem viderit aestas,Verg. A. 1, 265.—Prov.: “dum loqueris,” i. e. this instant, Petr. 99.—In the oratio obliqua: dic, hospes, Spartae, nos te hic vidisse jacentes, Dum sanctis patriae legibus obsequimur, Poëta ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 42, 101; Liv. 2, 57; 26, 16; Tac. A. 15, 59; id. H. 1, 33; Ov. M. 4, 776 et saep.—
b. When the principal action is an immediate and sudden sequence of that described in the clause with dum, subito or repente is often used in the principal clause: “dum tempus teritur, repente milites, etc.,Liv. 29, 9, 5: dum advenientes filia interrogat, repente in osculis, etc. Suet. Aug. 99: “dum Appium orno, subito sum factus accusatoris ejus socer,Cic. Att. 6, 6, 1; Hirt. B. Afr. 61.—
c. When the actions are simply presented as contemporaneous, interea, jam or interea jam is often used in the principal clause: “dum haec mecum reputo, accersitur lavatum interea virgo,Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 44; Cic. Quint. 6, 28: “dum ea Romani parant, jam Saguntum oppugnabatur,Liv. 21, 7, 1; cf. “also: dum ... interim,Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 8; id. Men. 1, 3, 31; Liv. 21, 47, 7 al.
2. Esp., of duration in the present, now, yet.
a. In combination with etiam primum, and esp. freq. with the negations non, nec, ne, haud, nihil, nullus, nemo, v. h vv.—
b. Colloq., as an enclitic with imperatives and interjections (by some separately written ades dum, abi dum, etc, but v. Ritschl, Opusc Phil p. 567 sq.), orig, acc of time, a moment, a second, a little Sosia adesdum, paucis te volo, Ter. And 1, 1, 2 abidum, id. Heaut. 2, 3, 8 circumspicedum, Plaut Trin. 1, 2, 109: “dicdum,Ter. Hec 5, 3, 5 facitodum, id. Heaut 3, 2, 39 iteradum, Poëta ap. Cic. Att. 14, 14 jubedum, Plaut. Rud. 3, 5, 7: “manedum,id. Bacch. 4, 6, 24; Ter. Hec. 5, 4, 4: “memoradum,Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 103: “tacedum,id. Men. 2, 2, 73: “tangedum,id. Rud. 3, 5, 5 al.: “agedum (most freq.),id. Am. 2, 2, 151; 5, 1, 29; id. As. 4, 1, 1; 5, 1, 1 et saep. (for which, agidum, id. Trin. 2, 2, 89 Ritschl ad loc.); Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 27; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Hec. 3, 1, 35; id. Phorm. 5, 3, 1; Cic. Sull. 26; Liv. 7, 9; 9, 16 al.; Cat. 63, 78; Stat. Th. 7, 126 al.: “agitedum,Liv. 3, 62 Drak.; 5, 52; 7, 34 fin.: “cedodum,Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 15: “ehodum,id. And. 1, 2, 13; 2, 1, 24; 3, 5, 10; id. Eun. 2, 3, 68; also in Plaut. in enumerations: primumdum (= Gr. πρῶτον μέν), Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 26; id. Most. 2, 1, 53; id. Trin. 1, 2, 61 al.
B. With respect to the temporal limit of both actions, i. q. tamdiu quam or usque eo, as long as, while.
1. Lit. (with indic. when the duration of the action in the principal clause is alone implied, except in the oratio obliqua).—In praes.: bene factum a vobis, dum vivitis, non abscedet, Cato ap. Gell. 16, 1 fin.; so Cic. Lael. 4, 14; id. de Sen. 23, 86; id. Fin. 3, 2, 9; Caes. B. G. 7, 50 fin. al.—In fut.: quid illos opinamini animi habuisse atque habituros, dum vivent? Cato ap. Gell. 10, 13, 17; Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; Cic. Rosc. Am. 32 fin.; id. Leg. 1, 1, 2; Verg. A. 1, 607 sq. et saep.—
(β). Subj., often, when the clause with dum expresses a desired end, or refers to an indefinite future: “non tibi venit in mentem, Si, dum vivas, tibi bene facias, etc.,Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 76: “pars, dum vires suppeterent, eruptionem censebant,Caes. B. G. 7, 77, 2: “ut sua sponte, dum sine periculo liceret, excederet Gadibus,id. B. C. 2, 20, 3: “hoc unum esse tempus de pace agendi, dum sibi uterque confideret ut pares ambo viderentur,id. ib. 3, 10, 7: “de quo (sc. animo) dum disputarem, tuam mihi dari vellem, Cotta, eloquentiam,Cic. N. D. 2, 59, 147 Bait. (v. Roby, Gram. 2, 284 sq.). —
b. With tamdiu, tantum, tantummodo, tantisper, usque; or opp. postea, postquam, deinde, ubi, nunc, etc.—With tamdiu, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3; id. Cat. 3, 7; id. de Sen. 12, 41; id. Tusc. 5, 33 fin.; id. Att. 9, 6, 5 al.—With tantum, Liv. 27, 42.—With tantummodo, Sall. J. 53, 3.—With tantisper, Plaut. Truc. prol. 11; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 44; id. Heaut. 1, 1, 54.—With usque, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 5: dum ... postea, id. Mur. 12, 26—dum ... postea quam, Caes. B. G. 7, 82, 1; Cic. Rosc. Am. 43 fin.—dum ... postquam, Sall. J. 53, 3; Liv. 21, 13; cf. Ter. And. 1, 1, 27—dum ... deinde, Cic. Att. 9, 6, 5; Liv. 27, 42, 13—dum ... sed ubi, Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 37; Caes. B. C. 1, 51, 5—dum ... nunc, Ter. And. 1, 2, 17; Cic. Ac. 1, 4, 11.—For tamdiu ... dum, less freq. dum ... dum, as long as ... so long: “sic virgo dum intacta manet, dum cara suis,Cat. 62, 45 and 56; cf. Quint. 9, 3, 16: “dum habeat, dum amet,Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 23 (al. tum).—
c. In Plautus repeatedly with an emphatic quidem, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 57; 5, 2, 20; id. Bacch. 2, 2, 48; id. Merc. 2, 3, 53; id. Ps. 1, 5, 92.—
2. Transf.
a. In conditional relations as a restrictive particle, like quatenus and duntaxat, so long as, if so be that, provided that, if only (so regularly connected with the subjunctive; “freq. in prose and poetry): dum pereas, nihil interduo aiant vivere,Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 36: Ly. Concede, inspiciam quid sit scriptum. Cu. Maxime, Tuo arbitratu, dum auferam abs te id quod peto, id. Curc. 3, 58; cf.: “dum res maneant, verba fingant arbitratu suo,Cic. Fin. 5, 29 fin.: oderint, dum metuant, Att. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 28, 97: “licet lascivire, dum nihil metuas,Cic. Rep. 1, 40 et saep.; in the imperf.: “qui sese in cruciatum dari cuperet, dum de patris morte quaereretur,id. Rosc. Am. 41, 119; Sall. C. 40, 4; id. J. 68, 3; Quint. 10, 1, 33: An. Non pudet vanitatis? Do. Minime, dum ob rem, Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 41; “so without a verb,Cic. Fam. 7, 9; id. Ac. 2, 32, 104; Quint. 4, 1, 70; 9, 4, 58; 10, 3, 5; cf.: “dum eatenus,id. 1, 11, 1.—
(γ). With tamen, and, in Plautus (cf. above, 1. c.), with quidem.—With tamen, Cic. de Or. 2, 77, 314; Cels. 3, 4; Quint. 1, 1, 11; 2, 12, 7; 8 prooem. § 32; Dig. 39, 22, 4.—With quidem, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 20; id. Aul. 2, 2, 34; cf. the foll. number.—
(δ). In negative conditional clauses, with ne, so long as not, provided that not, if only not: “VTEI. SENATVS. NOSTER. DECERNERET. DVM. NE. MINVS. SENATORIBVS. C. ADESENT., S. C. de Bac. (thrice): id faciat saepe, dum ne lassus fiat,Cato, R. R. 5, 4; Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 137; cf. id. Bacch. 4, 8, 26; id. Curc. 1, 1, 36; Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 12; Cic. Att. 6, 1, 4; 8, 11, B fin.; Liv. 3, 21 Drak.; 28, 40; Ov. H. 3, 81.—So too, dummodo ne, Cic. de Or. 3, 48, 185; id. Fam. 10, 25, 2; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 7; id. Att. 12, 45 al.: “dum quidem ne,Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 89.—
b. With a causal accessory notion, until, long enough for, etc (very rare, only with subjunctive) obsidio deinde per paucos dies magis quam oppugnatio fuit, dum vulnus ducis curaretur, Liv 21, 8; cf. id. 24, 40; Suet Aug. 78 fin. nam se quoque moveri finget, dum aditum sibi ad aures faciat, Quint. 4, 1, 46.
II. In immediate suceession, until, until that (with the subjunctive or the indicative, as the idea of aim or simply of time predominates; cf. “e.g.: quid dicam, quantus amor bestiarum sit in educandis custodiendisque iis, quae procreaverunt, usque ad eum finem, dum possint se ipsa defendere?Cic. N. D. 2, 51 fin.: “ea mansit in condicione atque pacto usque ad eum finem, dum judices rejecti sunt,Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 16; cf. Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 32; id. Eun. 1, 2, 126; Liv. 4, 21 fin.; 27, 42. Cicero generally, Caesar always employs the subjunctive).
(β). Indic.: “tu hic nos, dum eximus, interea opperibere,Ter. Heaut. 4, 7, 5; “so with opperiri,Cic. Att. 10, 3; “with manere aliquem,Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 28; “with exspectare,id. Eun. 1, 2, 126; “with morari,Liv. 27, 42; cf.: “causas innecte morandi, Dum pelago desaevit hiems,Verg. A. 4, 52: “retine, dum ego huc servos evoco,Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 89; cf.: “Tityre, dum redeo, pasce capellas,Verg. E. 9, 23: struppis, quibus lectica deligata erat, usque adeo verberari jussit, dum animam efflavit, Gracch. ap. Gell. 10, 3, 5; cf. in the perf., Prop. 1, 3, 45; in the fut., id. 1, 14, 14. See Hand, Turs. II. pp. 303-330.
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