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fŏrum , i, (archaic form fŏrus , i, m., to accord with locus, Lucil. ap. Charis. p. 55 P., and ap. Non. 206, 15; Pompon. ib.), n. etym. dub.; perh. root Sanscr. dhar-, support; dhar-as, mountain, etc.; Lat. forma, fortis, frenum, etc.; lit., a place or space with set bounds, Corss. Ausspr. 1, 149,
I.what is out of doors, an outside space or place; in partic., as opp. the house, a public place, a market-place, market (cf.: macellum, emporium, velabrum): forum sex modis intelligitur. Primo, negotiationis locus, ut forum Flaminium, forum Julium, ab eorum nominibus, qui ea fora constituenda curarunt, quod etiam locis privatis et in viis et in agris fieri solet. Alio, in quo judicia fieri, cum populo agi, contiones haberi solent. Tertio, cum is, qui provinciae praeest, forum agere dicitur, cum civitates vocat et de controversiis eorum cognoscit. Quarto, cum id forum antiqui appellabant, quod nunc vestibulum sepulcri dicari solet. Quinto, locus in navi, sed tum masculini generis est et plurale (v. forus). Sexto, fori significant et Circensia spectacula, ex quibus etiam minores forulos dicimus. Inde et forare, foras dare, et fores, foras et foriculae, id est ostiola dicuntur, Paul. ex Fest. p. 84 Müll.
I. In gen., an open space.
B. The part of the wine-press in which the grapes were laid, Varr. R. R. 1, 54, 2; Col. 11, 2, 71; 12, 18, 3.—
C. Plur.: fora = fori, the gangways of a ship, Gell. ap. Charis. 55 P.—
II. In partic., a public place, market-place.
(α). forum boarium , the cattlemarket, between the Circus Maximus and the Tiber, Varr. L. L. 5, § 146 Müll.; Paul. ex Fest. p. 30, 5; Liv. 21, 62, 2; Plin. 34, 2, 5, § 10; Tac. A. 12, 24; cf. Ov. F. 6, 477. A part of this was probably the forum suarium , Dig. 1, 12, 1, § 11.—
(β). forum olitorium , the vegetable-market, south of the theatre of Marcellus, between the Tiber and the Capitoline hill; “here stood the columna lactaria, at which infants were exposed,Varr. L. L. 5, § 146 Müll.; Liv. 21, 63, 3; Tac. A. 2, 49; Paul. ex Fest. p. 118, 6. Here was probably the forum coqui-num also, in which professional cooks offered their services in preparing special entertainments, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 1.—
(γ). fo-rum piscarium (or piscatorium ), the fish-market, between the basilica Porcia and the Temple of Vesta, Varr. L. L. 5, § 146 Müll.; Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 13; Liv. 26, 27, 3; 40, 51, 5; Col. 8, 17, 15.—
(δ). forum cuppedinis , the market for dainties, between the via sacra and the macellum, Varr. L. L. 5, § 186 Müll. Cf. the similar market in another town, App. M. 1, p. 113, 30 (dub. Hildebr. cupidinis).—Of places where markets were held, a market-town, market-place: “L. Clodius, pharmacopola circumforaneus, qui properaret, cui fora multa restarent, simul atque introductus est, rem confecit,Cic. Clu. 14, 40: “oppidum Numidarum, nomine Vaga, forum rerum venalium totius regni maxime celebratum,Sall. J. 47, 1.—Prov.: Scisti uti foro, you knew how to make your market, i. e. how to act for your advantage, Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 29; v. Don. ad loc.—
B. The market-place, forum, in each city, as the principal place of meeting, where public affairs were discussed, courts of justice held, money transactions carried on: “statua ejus (Anicii) Praeneste in foro statuta,Liv. 23, 19, 18; hence also, transf., to denote affairs of state, administration of justice, or banking business. In Rome esp. the forum Romanum, Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 66; Tac. A. 12, 24; called also forum magnum, vetus, or, oftener, absol., forum, Liv. 1, 12, 8; 9, 40, 16; Cic. Att. 4, 16, 14 et saep.; a low, open artificial level, about six hundred and thirty Parisian feet long, and rather more than a hundred wide, between the Capitoline and Palatine hills, surrounded by porticos (basilicae) and the shops of money-changers (argentariae), in later times surrounded with fine buildings, and adorned with numberless statues (cf. on it Becker's Antiq. 1, p. 281 sq., and Dict. of Antiq. p. 451): “in foro infumo boni homines atque dites ambulant,Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14: “in foro turbaque,Cic. Rep. 1, 17: “arripere verba de foro,to pick them up in the street, id. Fin. 3, 2, 4: “in vulgus et in foro dicere,id. Rep. 3, 30 (Fragm. ap. Non. 262, 24): “cum Decimus quidam Verginius virginem filiam in foro sua manu interemisset,id. Rep. 2, 37: “in forum descendere,id. ib. 6, 2 (Fragm. ap. Non. 501, 28): “foro nimium distare Carinas,Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 48: “fallacem Circum vespertinumque pererro Saepe forum,id. S. 1, 6, 114: “forumque litibus orbum,id. C. 4, 2, 44: “Hostes in foro ac locis patentioribus cuneatim constiterunt,Caes. B. G. 7, 28, 1: “gladiatores ad forum producti,id. B. C. 1, 14, 4: “ut primum forum attigerim,” i. e. engaged in public affairs, Cic. Fam. 5, 8, 3: “studia fori,Tac. Agr. 39: forum putealque Libonis Mandabo siccis, adimam cantare severis, i. e. the grave affairs of state, Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 8.—Of administering justice in the forum: NI PAGVNT, IN COMITIO AVT IN FORO ANTE MERIDIEM CAVSAM CONICITO, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 13, 20: “ut pacem cum bello, leges cum vi, forum et juris dictionem cum ferro et armis conferatis,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 54 fin.: “quod (tempus) in judiciis ac foro datur,Quint. 10, 7, 20: “nec ferrea jura Insanumque forum aut populi tabularia vidit,Verg. G. 2, 502: “forum agere,to hold a court, hold an assize, Cic. Att. 5, 16, 4; cf. id. Fam. 3, 6, 4: “lenta fori pugnamus harena,Juv. 16, 47; cf. vv. sqq.—Poet. transf.: “indicitque forum et patribus dat jura vocatis,Verg. A. 5, 758: “civitates, quae in id forum convenerant,to that court - district, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 15, § 38: “extra suum forum vadimonium promittere,beyond his district, id. ib. 2, 3, 15, § “38.—Prov.: egomet video rem vorti in meo foro,is pending in my own court, affects me nearly, Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 10: “in alieno foro litigare,” i. e. not to know what to do, which way to turn, Mart. 12 praef.—Of the transaction of business in the forum: “haec fides atque haec ratio pecuniarum, quae Romae, quae in foro versatur,Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 7, 19: “quousque negotiabere? annos jam triginta in foro versaris,id. Fl. 29, 70: “sublata erat de foro fides,id. Agr. 2, 3 fin.: “nisi, etc. ... nos hunc Postumum jam pridem in foro non haberemus,” i. e. he would have been a bankrupt long ago, id. Rab. Post. 15, 41: cedere foro, to quit the market, i. e. to become bankrupt, Sen. Ben. 4, 39; Dig. 16, 3, 7, § 2; Juv. 11, 50; cf. Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 16. Justice was administered in Rome not only in the forum Romanum, but also, in the times of the emperors, in the forum (Julii) Caesaris (erected by Julius Caesar, Suet. Caes. 26; Plin. 36, 15, 24, § 103; 16, 44, 86, § 236) and in the forum Augusti (erected by the Emperor Augustus, Suet. Aug. 29, and adorned with a fine ivory statue of Apollo, Plin. 7, 53, 54, § 183; Ov. F. 5, 552; id. Tr. 3, 1, 27); “called simply forum,Juv. 1, 128 (where Apollo is called juris peritus, in allusion to the judicial proceedings held here); hence, circumscriptiones, furta, fraudes, quibus trina non sufficiunt fora, Sen. de Ira, 2, 9, 1; so, “quae (verba) trino juvenis foro tonabas,Stat. S. 4, 9, 15; and: “erit in triplici par mihi nemo foro,Mart. 3, 38, 4: “vacuo clausoque sonant fora sola theatro,Juv. 6, 68.—
C. Nom. propr. Fŏrum , a name of many market and assize towns, nine of which, in Etruria, are named, Plin. 3, 15, 20, § 116. The most celebrated are,
1. Forum Ăliēni , a town in Gallia Transpadana, now Ferrara, Tac. H. 3, 6.—
2. Forum Appii , a market-town in Latium, on the Via Appia, near Tres Tavernae, now Foro Appio, Cic. Att. 2, 10; Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 64; Hor. S. 1, 5, 3; Inscr. Orell. 780 al.
3. Forum Aurēlium , a small city near Rome, on the Via Aurelia, now Montalto, Cic. Cat. 1, 9, 24.—
4. Forum Cornē-lium , a town in Gallia Cispadana, now Imola, Cic. Fam. 12, 5, 2.—Hence, Foro-corneliensis , e, adj.: “ager,Plin. 3, 16, 20, § 120.—
5. Forum Gallōrum , a town in Gallia Cispadana, between Mutina and Bononia, now Castel Franco, Cic. Fam. 10, 30, 2.—
6. Forum Jūlii , a town in Gallia Narbonensis, a colony of the eighth legion, now Frejus, Mel. 2, 5, 3; Plin. 3, 4, 5, § 35; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 15, 3; 10, 17, 1; Tac. H. 3, 43.—Deriv.: Forojulien-sis , e, adj., of or belonging to Forum Julii, Forojulian: “colonia,” i. e. Forum Julii, Tac. H. 2, 14; 3, 43.—In plur.: Forojulien-ses , inhabitants of Forum Julii, Forojulians, Tac. Agr. 4.—
7. Forum Vŏcōnii , 24 miles from Forum Julii, in the Pyrenees, now, acc. to some, Le Canet; acc. to others, Luc, Cic. Fam. 10, 17, 1; 10, 34, 1; Plin. 3, 4, 5, § 36.
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