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glădĭus , ĭi, m. (also archaic glă-dĭum , ii, n., Lucil. ap. Non. 208, 13; cf. Varr. L. L. 9, § 81 Müll.; Quint. 1, 5, 16; v. gladiola under gladiolus, I.) [perh. akin to clades, cardo; cf. κλαδάσαι, to brandish],
I.a sword (syn. the poet. ensis, acc. to Quint. 10, 1, 11; cf. also: spatha, acinaces, sica, pugio).
b. Prov.
(α). Suo sibi hunc gladio jugulo, fight him with his own weapons, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 35; cf. “the same,Cic. Caecin. 29, 82.—
(β). Cum illum (Clodium) plumbeo gladio jugulatum iri tamen diceret (Hortensius), i. e. with very little trouble, Cic. Att. 1, 16, 2. —
(γ). Ignem gladio scrutare, stir the fire with a sword (= πῦρ μαχαίρᾳ σκαλεύειν, Pythag. ap. Diog. Laert. 8, 17), Hor. S. 2, 3, 276.—
(δ). Gladium alicui dare qui se occidat, to give one the means of ruining himself, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 92.—
II. Transf.
A. Murder, death: “cum tanta praesertim gladiorum sit impunitas,Cic. Phil. 1, 11, 27; cf. id. Fam. 10, 2, 1; Vell. 2, 3, 3; 2, 125, 2; “gladiorum licentia,Cic. Fam. 4, 9 fin.; id. 2, 22, 2: “qui universas provincias regunt, jus gladii habent,” i. e. the power of life and death, Dig. 1, 18, 6, § 8: “potestas gladii,ib. 2, 1, 3; Capitol. Gord. 9.—
B. A gladiatorial combat: “qui cum maxime dubitat, utrum se ad gladium locet an ad cultrum,Sen. Ep. 87 med.: “comparare homines ad gladium,Lact. 6, 12 fin.: “servus ad gladium vel ad bestias vel in metallum damnatus,Dig. 29, 2, 25.—
C. Gladius vomeris, a ploughshare, Plin. 18, 18, 48, § 172.—
D. The sword-fish, also called xiphias (ξιφίας), Plin. 9, 2, 1, § 3; 9, 15, 21, § 54; 32, 11, 53, § 145.
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