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hŏmo , ĭnis (archaic form hemonem hominem dicebant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 100 Müll.; cf. humanus
I.init., and nēmo, from nĕ-hĕmo: homōnem, Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 683 P. = Ann. v. 141 Vahl.: “hŏmōnes,Naev. 1, 1), comm. root in humus, Gr. χαμαί; cf. Germ. -gam in Bräutigam; O. H. Germ. gomo; Goth. guma; Old Engl. goom; Engl. groom; cf. also Gr. ἐπιχθόνιοι; Hebr. Adam, a human being, man.
I. Lit.
A. In gen.: “animal hoc providum, sagax, multiplex, acutum, memor, plenum rationis et consilii quem vocamus hominem, praeclara quadam condicione generatum esse a summo deo, etc.,Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 22; cf.“, on the natural history of man,Plin. 7 praef. sq.; § 5 sq.: decem hominibus vitam eripis, indictā causā, Cato ap. Gell. 13, 25 (24), 12: dum quidem unus homo Romanus toga superescit, Enn. ap. Fest. p. 302 Müll. (Ann. v. 486 Vahl.); cf.: unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem, id. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 313 ib.): navus repertus homo Graio patre Graius homo rex, id. ap. Fest. p. 169 Müll. (Ann. v. 183 ib.): “homo jam grandior,Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 15: “homo amicus nobis ... homo antiqua virtute ac fide,id. Ad. 3, 3, 86 sq.; cf.: “bonus homo et nobis amicus,Cic. Fam. 16, 18 fin.: quid est, quod homo masculus lubentius videre debeat bella uxore? Varr. ap. Non. 248, 16: “infelix,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 169: “homo omni doctrina eruditus,Cic. Fin. 1, 5, 13; cf.: “homo summā prudentiā, multā etiam doctrinā,id. Fam. 3, 7, 5: “de hujus hominis (i. e. Pompei) felicitate, etc.,id. de Imp. Pomp. 16, 47: “iners atque inutilis,id. Off. 3, 6, 31; cf.: “contemptus et abjectus,id. Agr. 2, 34, 93: “insulsus,id. Tusc. 1, 8, 15; cf. “also: hominum homo stultissime,Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 10: “quid hoc homine faciatis?Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 16, § 42: “consulere generi hominum,the human race, mankind, id. Rep. 3, 12: “genus hominum,id. ib. 2, 26; id. de Or. 1, 9, 36; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 7 et saep. (more freq., genus humanum; v. humanus and genus); cf.: “natura hominem conciliat homini ... hominum coetus et celebrationes,Cic. Off. 1, 4, 12: “placet Stoicis, quae in terris gignantur, ad usum hominum omnia creari, homines autem hominum causa esse generatos,id. ib. 1, 7, 22: “homines plurimum hominibus et prosunt et obsunt,id. ib. 2, 5, 17: is dictus popularibus olim, Qui tum vivebant homines, Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 15, 58 (Ann. v. 308 Vahl.): “homines Romani,Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 14, 41: “lege conciliati homines cum dis putandi sunt,id. Leg. 1, 7, 23: “pro deum atque hominum fidem!Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 16 et saep.: divumque hominumque pater, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 65 Müll. (Ann. v. 566 Vahl.); so, id. ap. Cic. N. D. 2, 2, 4 (Ann. v. 567) and ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 254); but homo, sing., is used of the human race, mankind (= homines, genus humanum), when it has no predicate joined with it: “qua haud scio an quidquam melius sit homini datum,Cic. Lael. 6, 20; 3, 11: “taces, Monstrum hominis?Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 29; cf.: “odium illud hominis impuri,Cic. Fam. 12, 1, 1: “quid hoc sit hominis?Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 26; cf.: “quid illuc hominus est?Ter. Eun. 5, 1, 17; “in addresses: nisi caves tu homo, etc.,id. Heaut. 5, 3, 1: “tu homo adigis me ad insaniam,id. Ad. 1, 2, 31.—In apposition: “mares homines,Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 32: “amanti homini adulescenti,id. Trin. 1, 2, 94; cf.: “filius homo adulescens,Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 52; “v. adulescens: verberare hominem senem,id. Ad. 4, 2, 23: “servom hominem,id. Phorm. 2, 1, 62: “oculi hominis histrionis,Cic. de Or. 2, 46, 193: “nemo homo,Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 29; cf.: “ut homo nemo velit nisi hominis similis esse,Cic. N. D. 1, 28, 78; “v. nemo. —Of females: mater, cujus ea stultitia est, ut eam nemo hominem appellare possit,Cic. Clu. 70, 199: “quae (Io) bos ex homine est,Ov. F. 5, 620; Juv. 6, 284: “dulcissimum ab hominis camelinum lac,Plin. 28, 9, 33, § 123: homines feminae (opp. mares homines), Aug. Civ. Dei, 3, 3.—
2. Prov.
a. Quot homines, tot sententiae, many men, many minds, i. e. every one has his own opinion, Ter. Phorm. 2, 4, 14; Cic. Fin. 1, 5, 15.—
b. Ut homo est, ita morem geras, Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 77 (but in Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 36 spurious, v. Ritschl ad h. l.).—
c. Homines, dum docent, discunt, Sen. Ep. 7, 8 fin.
d. Aiunt homines plus in alieno negotio videre quam in suo, the lookers-on see farther in the game than the players, id. ib. 109, 16. —
e. Homo nulli coloris, neither fish nor flesh, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 99.—
f. Homo sum; humani nihil a me alienum puto, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 25; cf.: “homo ego sum, homo tu es,Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 46.—
g. Lupus homo homini, non homo, quom qualis sit non novit, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 88.—
B. In partic.
1. Pregn., in a good or a bad sense.
a. In a good sense (cf. vir), a man, as a reasonable or moral being: “homo es, qui me emunxisti mucidum,Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 57: “si homo esset, eum potius legeret,Cic. Att. 2, 2, 2: “nox te expolivit hominemque reddidit,id. de Or. 2, 10, 40: “si vis homo esse,id. Att. 4, 15, 2: “homines visi sumus,id. ib. 13, 52, 2: “nos quod simus, quod habeamus, quod homines existimemur, id omne abs te habere,id. Fam. 7, 29, 1: “si tu sis homo,Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 11: “et tu illum tuom, si esses homo, sineres, etc.,if you had a man's sense, id. ib. 1, 2, 27: “exuens hominem ex homine,Cic. Fin. 5, 12, 35: cum Socrates Alcibiadi persuasisset, eum nihil hominis esse, that he was nothing of a man (i. e. in no respect such as a man should be), id. Tusc. 3, 32, 77: “(Nero) dicebat se quasi hominem tandem habitare coepisse,like a human being, Suet. Ner. 31: “me hominem inter homines voluit esse,Petr. 39. —
b. In a bad sense, a man, as a weak, mortal being, subject to error, of low condition (rare): “fateor me saepe peccasse, nam et homo sum et adhuc juvenis,Petr. 130: cf. “homines sumus, non dei,id. 75: “(Demosthenes, Homerus) summi sunt, homines tamen,Quint. 10, 1, 25.—In fem.: quae si hoc tempore non diem suum obiisset, paucis post annis tamen ei moriendum fuit, quoniam homo nata fuerat, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4.—Also of servants (as distinguished from a free Roman): homo P. Quinti, Quintus's man, i. e. his slave, servant, Cic. Quint. 19, 61: “vinum familiae ... Saturnalibus et Compitalibus in singulos homines congios,Cato, R. R. 57, 2; Cat. 10, 16.—
2. In opp. to a woman, a man (anteand post-class., and very rare): “mi homo et mea mulier, vos saluto,Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 57; Lact. 2, 12; Dig. 48, 19, 38.—*
3. In milit. lang., homines, opp. to cavalry, foot-soldiers, infantry: “capti homines equitesque producebantur,Caes. B. C. 2, 39, 5; cf. vir. —
4. Homo novus, v. novus.—
6. Particular phrases.
a. Paucorum hominum esse, to have but few intimates, be choice in one's company: (Maecenas) paucorum hominum et mentis bene sanae. Hor. S. 1, 9, 44: “homo est Perpaucorum hominum,Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 19.— Hence, comically, of the favorite but rare fish, acipenser: Scipio vide, quid agas: acipenser iste paucorum hominum est, Cic. Fragm. ap. Macr. S. 2, 12 (see the anecdote in connection).—
b. Inter homines esse (agere).
(α). To be among the living, to be alive, to live (very rare): “Hercules numquam abiisset ad deos, nisi cum inter homines esset, eam sibi viam munivisset,Cic. Tusc. 1, 14, 32: “inter homines esse desinere,” i. e. to die, Dig. 31, 1, 59; so, “agere inter homines desinere,Tac. A. 15, 74 fin.: “ab hominibus ereptus est,Dig. 31, 1, 58.—
(β). To see the world, be among men: “iste homo qui numquam inter homines fuerit,Cic. Rosc. Am. 28, 76.—
B. Hic homo, this man, = I, myself (ante-class. and poet.): “hunc hominem velles si tradere,Hor. S. 1, 9, 47: “solus hic homo est, qui sciat, etc.,Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 33: “tibi verba, huic homini verbera,Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 114 (cf. hic, G.).
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