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jūs , jūris (
I.gen. plur. jurum for jurium, Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 86; Cato ap. Charis. p. 72 and 109 P.: “juribus,Dig. 13, 5, 3, § 1; Charis. p. 19: jure, arch. dat., Liv. 42, 28, 6; Corp. Ins. Lat. 198, 31), n. kindred with Sanscr. yu, to join; cf. ζεύγνυμι, jungo, qs. the binding, obliging; cf. lex from ligo, right, law, justice.
I. Lit. (class.; in plur. very rare, except in nom. and acc.), that which is binding or obligatory; that which is binding by its nature, right, justice, duty: “juris praecepta sunt haec, honeste vivere, alterum non laedere, suum cuique tribuere,Just. Inst. 1, 1, 3: jus naturale est quod natura omnia animalia docuit...videmus etenim cetera quoque animalia istius juris perita censeri, Dig. 1, 1, 1, § 3; Just. Inst. 1, 2 prooem.: omnes boni ipsam aequitatem et jus ipsum amant; “per se jus est appetendum,Cic. Leg. 1, 18, 48: Gy. Amabo, hicine istuc decet? Le. Jusque fasque est, Plaut. As. 1, 1, 20: “jus hic orat,id. Trin. 5, 2, 37; id. Ps. 1, 5, 123: “omnium legum atque jurium fictor, conditor cluet,id. Ep. 3, 4, 90: “jus hominum situm est in generis humani societate,Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64: “tenere,id. Caecin. 11: “obtinere,to maintain, id. Quint. 9: “de jure alicui respondere,to lay down the law, id. de Or. 2, 33, 142: “respondere,id. Leg. 1, 4, 12: dicere, to pronounce judgment, give a judicial decision, as, e. g. the prætor: “a Volcatio, qui Romae jus dicit,id. Fam. 13, 14; Verg. A. 7, 246; cf.: “jura dare,id. ib. 1, 507: “praetor quoque jus reddere dicitur, etiam cum inique decernit,Dig. 1, 1, 11: quid dubitas dare mihi argentum? S. Jus petis, fateor, you ask what is right, reasonable, Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 16: “jus publicum,common right, Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 65: “jura communia,equal rights, Cic. Div. 1, 5: “divina ac humana,id. Off. 1, 26: “belli,id. Div. 2, 77: “gentium,the law of nations, id. Off. 3, 5: “quod naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, id apud omnes populos peraeque custoditur, vocaturque jus gentium,Gai. Inst. 1, 1: “civile,the civil law, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 42, § 109: quod quisque populus ipse sibi jus constituit, id ipsius proprium est vocaturque jus civile, Gai Inst. 1, 1: “pontificium,Cic. Dom. 13, 34: “praediatorium,id. Balb. 20: “conjugialia,Ov. M. 6, 536: “jus est, apponi pernam frigidam,Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 26: “jus fasque est,human and divine right, id. Cist. 1, 1, 22: “juris nodos solvere,Juv. 8, 50.—Abl.: jūrĕ , adverb., with justice, justly: “jure in eum animadverteretur,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 8, § 19: “jure ac merito,id. ib. 2, 5, 67, § 172; id. Cat. 3, 6, 14; Juv. 2, 34: “et jure fortasse,id. Tusc. 3, 12, 26: “et fortasse suo jure,id. Fin. 5, 2, 4: “te ipse, jure optimo, merito incuses licet,with perfect justice, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 24: “optimo jure,Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf.: pleno jure, Gai Inst. 1, 5, 14: “justo jure,Liv. 21, 3, 4; cf. “opp. to injuria: non quaero, jure an injuria sint inimici,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 61, § 150: summum jus, the extremity or utmost rigor of the law: “non agam summo jure tecum,id. ib. 2, 5, 2, § “4: ex quo illud, Summum jus, summa injuria, factum est jam tritum sermone proverbium,id. Off. 1, 10, 33; “so opp. (aequum et bonum habere quod defendant), si contra verbis et litteris, et, ut dici solet, summo jure contenditur,id. Caecin. 23, 65.
II. Transf.
A. A place where justice is administered, a court of justice: “in jus ambula,come before a magistrate, Plaut. Rud. 3, 6, 22; Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 43: “in jus ire,Nep. Att. 6, 4: “cum ad praetorem in jus adissemus,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 65, § 147: “in jus acres procurrunt,Hor. S. 1, 7, 20: “aliquem in jus vocare,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 76, § 187; Hor. S. 2, 5, 29: “aliquem in jus rapere,id. ib. 1, 9, 77; “2, 3, 72: trahere,Juv. 10, 87.—
B. Justice, justness of a thing: “absolverunt, admiratione magis virtutis, quam jure causae,Liv. 1, 26.—
C. Legal right, power, authority, permission: “cum plebe agendi,Cic. Leg. 2, 12, 31: “materiae caedendae,Liv. 5, 55.—Of particular rights: jus eundi, a right of way, Gai Inst. 2, 31: “jus agendi, aquamve ducendi,id. ib.: “altius tollendi vel prospiciendi,id. ib. 4, 3: jus civitatis, the right to obtain the privileges of citizenship (cf. civitas; “v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 640),Cic. Arch. 5, 11; id. Caecin. 34, 98; 35, 102; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 11,§ 26: “jus capiendi,Juv. 1, 56: “testandi,id. 16, 51; cf. 6, 217: jus trium liberorum, Sen. ap. Lact. 1, 16, 10: “patrium,the power of life and death over their children, Liv. 1, 26: “homines recipere in jus dicionemque,id. 21, 61: “sub jus judiciumque regis venire,id. 39, 24: “(homo) sui juris,his own master, independent, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 7, § 18: “jus ad mulieres,over the women, Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 22: “ut eodem jure essent, quo fuissent,Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 6, § 13; cf.: “melius, quod nil animis in corpora juris natura indulget,Juv. 2, 139.—The legal forms of the old jurists: “jus Flavianum,Dig. 1, 2, 2, § 7.
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