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Mars (archaic and poet. Māvors, q. v.), Martis (collat. reduplic. form Marmar, in the Song of the Arval Brothers; v. the following, and Mamers), m. root mar-, gleam; Sanscr. marīkis, beam of light; hence Mars, the bright god; cf.: marmor, mare,
I.Mars, who, as father of Romulus, was the primogenitor of the Roman people, the god of war, of husbandry, of shepherds and seers. For him was named the month of Martius, March, the beginning of the Roman year, Ov. F. 3, 73 sqq.: “legio Martia ... ab eo deo, a quo populum Romanum generatum accepimus,Cic. Phil. 4, 2, 5: “Mars pater te precor quaesoque, uti sies volens propitius mihi, etc., ... ut tu morbos visos invisosque viduertatem vastitudinemque, calamitates intemperiasque prohibessis, etc.,Cato, R. R. 141, 2; cf., in the Song of the Arval Brothers, NEVE LVERVE MARMAR SINS INCVRRERE IN PLEORIS; “for Mars pater, the forms Marspiter, gen. Marspitris, or -tĕris, and Maspiter were also employed,Gell. 5, 12, 5; Macr. S. 1, 12; 19; Varr. L. L. 8, § 33 Müll.; 9, § 75; 10, § 65; Prisc. p. 695: “Mars Gradivus, Quirinus, Silvanus, Ultor, v. under h. vv.: Mars durus,Verg. E 10, 44: “torvus,Hor. C. 1, 28, 17: “cruentus,id. ib. 2, 14, 13: “ferus,Ov. H. 7, 160; id. F. 4, 25: “ferox,id. M. 13, 11: “bellicus,id. F. 3, 1: “fortibus sane oculis Cassius (Martem spirare dicens) se in Siciliam non iturum,Cic. Att. 15, 11. The Salii were destined for his service, Liv. 1, 20, 4; horses and bulls were offered to him, Paul. ex Fest. p. 61 Müll.; Ov. H. 6, 10; Macr. S. 3, 10, 4: “per Martem, a soldier's oath,Plaut. Mil. 5, 21. He was often appealed to in oaths, etc., esp. by soldiers: “Nam neque Duellona mi umquam neque Mars creduat, ni, etc.,Plaut. Bacch. 4, 8, 8; id. Mil. 1, 1, 11; id. Truc. 3, 1, 11.—
II. Transf.
A. War, battle, a conflict, engagement, contest, etc.; also the art of war: cum veter occubuit Priamus sub Marte Pelasgo, Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 607 P. (Ann. v. 17 Vahl.): “Martem accendere cantu,to incite to battle, Verg. A. 6, 165: “apertus,fighting in the open field, Ov. M. 13, 27: equitem suo alienoque Marte pugnare, i. e. to fight both in their own fashion (on horseback) and in one which was strange to them (on foot), Liv. 3, 62, 9: “pugna jam in manus, jam in gladios, ubi Mars est atrocissimus, venerat,id. 2, 46, 3: “terribili Marte ululare,Plin. 26, 4, 9, § 19: “captam sine Marte,Stat. Ach. 1, 401: “quos amisimus cives, eos Martis vis perculit, non ira victoriae,Cic. Marcell. 6, 17.—Poet.: “Mars forensis,a contest in the forum, legal contest, Ov. P. 4, 6, 29; cf.: “et fora Marte suo litigiosa vacent,id. F. 4, 188.—Hence, prov.: suo (nostro, vestro) Marte, by one's own exertions, without the assistance of others: “rex ipse suo Marte res suas recuperavit,Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 95; id. Off. 3, 7, 34: “cum vos vestro Marte his rebus omnibus abundetis,Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 4, § 9.—
B. The issue of a war or a battle, the fortune of war: “cum omnis belli Mars communis, et cum semper incerti exitus proeliorum sint,Cic. Fam. 6, 4, 1: communis adhuc Mars belli erat, Liv. 10, 28: “aequo Marte,with equal advantage, on equal terms, Caes. B. G. 7, 19, 3; 8, 19, 2; Curt. 4, 1, 8: “pari Marte,Hirt. B. G. 8, 19: “aequato Marte,Liv. 1, 25: “verso Marte ( = versā fortunā),id. 29, 3, 11: “vario Marte pugnatum est,Quint. 8, 6, 24: “incerto Marte,Tac. H. 4, 35: “anceps,Liv. 7, 29, 2; 21, 1, 2: “dubius,Vell. 2, 55, 3.—
C. The planet Mars: Jovis stellae proximum inferiorem orbem tenet πυρόεις, quae stella Martis appellatur, Cic. N. D. 2, 20, 53; 2, 46, 119; Plin. 2, 8, 6, § 34; 2, 15, 12, § 60; Hyg. Astr. 2, 42: “Martis sidus,Cassiod. Var. 11, 36.—Hence,
III. Mar-tĭus (Māvortĭus , v. infra), a, um, adj.
a. Of or belonging to Mars: “lupus,sacred to Mars, Verg. A. 9, 566; cf.: Martius lupus, integer et intactus, gentis nos Martiae et conditoris nostri admonuit, descended from Mars (since Mars is the father of Romulus and Remus), Liv. 10, 27: “legio,Cic. Phil. 3, 3, 6; 4, 2, 5: “miles,Ov. M. 14, 798: “proles,” i. e. Romulus and Remus, id. F. 3, 59: “anguis,sacred to Mars, id. M. 3, 32: “judicium,” i. e. of the Areopagus at Athens, App. M. 10, p. 718 Oud.: Campus; “v. campus: harena,a place in the Circus where the gladiators fought, Ov. Tr. 2, 282; Mart. 2, 75, 8: “gramen,” i. e. the Field of Mars, Hor. C. 3, 7, 26: Martius mensis, the month of March, formerly the first month of the year, Plin. 15, 3, 4, § 13: “Martii Calendis,Hor. C. 3, 8, 1: Idus Martiae, the Ides of March, famous as the day on which Julius Cæsar was killed, Cic. Att. 14, 4, 2; cf. 14, 20, 1 sq.; id. Phil. 2, 35, 88; id. Fam. 10, 28, 1.— In the form Mavortius (poet.): “moenia,” i. e. Rome, Verg. A. 1, 276: “tellus,” i. e. Thrace, id. G. 4, 462: “conjux,” i. e. Venus, Val. Fl. 2, 208: “proles,” i. e. the Thebans, Ov. M. 3, 531; cf.: “seges belli (because sprung from the dragon's teeth),Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 135.—
b. Transf.
1. Warlike, martial: “Martia Penthesilea,Verg. A. 11, 661: “Martia saeculi voluptas,Mart. 5, 24, 1: “Martius aeris rauci canor,Verg. G. 4, 71: “vulnera,id. A. 7, 182: “Thebe,” i. e. where many wars were carried on, Ov. Am. 3, 6, 33.—
2. Of or belonging to the planet Mars: “ille fulgor rutilus, horribilisque terris, quem Martium dicitis,Cic. Rep. 6, 17, 17.—As subst.: Mar-tĭus , ii, m. (sc. mensis), March, the month of March: “Mensium nomina fere aperta sunt, si a Martio, ut antiqui constituerunt, numeres, Nam primus a Marte,Varr. L. L. 6, 4, § 33.—
IV. Martĭālis , e, adj.
A. Of or belonging to Mars: Flamen, Varr L. L. 5, § 84 Müll.; “7, § 45 ib.: lupus,sacred to Mars, Hor. C. 1, 17, 9: “ludi,in honor of Mars, Suet. Claud. 1: Martialis collis, near the temple of Deus Fidius, Varr. L. L. 5, § 52 Müll.—Subst.: Martĭālis , is, m., a priest of Mars: “Martiales quidam Larini appellabantur, ministri publici Martis,Cic. Clu. 15, 43.—
B. Belonging to the legio Martia; hence, Martĭāles , the soldiers of the legio Martia, Cic. Phil. 4, 2, 5.
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