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nam ,
I.conj. [acc. sing. fem. of pronom. stem na-; cf.: ἐγώ-νη, τύ-νη; Lat. ne, nae; masc. num; cf.: tum, tam; quom, quam].
I. To introduce a confirmation or explanation, for (always in prose beginning the sentence; cf.: enim, etenim, and v. infra C.).
A. Introducing an explanation or fuller statement of something already said.
1. In gen.: “is pagus appellabatur Tigurinus. Nam omnis civitas Helvetia in quattuor pagos divisa est,Caes. B. G. 1, 12, 4: “quibus rebus auditis ... suas quoque copias in tres partes distribuerunt. Nam praesidio e regione castrorum relicto ... reliquas copias, etc.,id. ib. 7, 61, 5: neque solum colent inter se ac diligent, sed etiam verebuntur. Nam maximum ornamentum amicitiae tollit, qui ex eā tollit verecundiam, Cic. Lael. 22, 82; id. Part. Or. 11, 38; id. Or. 43, 147; cf.: “pandite atque aperite propere januam hanc Orci, opsecro. Nam equidem haut aliter esse duco,Plaut. Bacch. 3, 1, 2. —
2. Esp.
B. Introducing a ground or reason for a fact, command, or principle.
3. Loosely, introducing the speaker's reason for saying what precedes: nam ego ad Menaechmum nunc eo (I have said this), for, etc., Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 20; id. Trin. 1, 1, 3 Brix ad loc.—So esp. after a general remark, introducing its illustration in the case in hand, Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 58 Spengel ad loc.; id. Most. 5, 1, 3; id. Mil. 2, 1, 17.—
5. Ellipt., in reply to a question or remark, where the answer is implied, and nam introduces the reason for it; for assuredly, certainly: “nos hunc Heracliensem, multis civitatibus expetitum ... de nostrā civitate eiciemus? Nam si quis minorem gloriae fructum putat ex Graecis versibus percipi quam ex Latinis, vehementer errat,Cic. Arch. 10, 22 sq.: “numquid ergo hic Lysimachus, felicitate quādam dentibus leonis elapsus, ob hoc cum ipse regnaret mitior fuit? Nam Telesphorum Rhodium amicum suum ... in caveā velut novum animal aliquod ... pavit,Sen. de Ira. 3, 17, 3; cf.: de eis rebus, inquit Crassus, quibus sciam poteroque. Tum ille: “nam quod tu non poteris aut nescies, quis nostrum tam impudens est, qui se scire aut posse postulet?Cic. de Or. 1, 22, 101.—So with particles of asseveration: mehercule, hercule, edepol, etc.: tamen tibi a me nulla orta est injuria. Aes. Nam hercle etiam hoc restat, i. e. not yet; for that is to come hereafter, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 36: sume, posce, prome quidvis: te facio cellarium. Er. Nam nisi hercle manticinatus probe ero, fusti pectito, Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 115: “dicunt ei fere nullam esse columnam, quae ad perpendiculum esse possit. Nam mehercule, inquit, sic agamus: columnae ad perpendiculum exigantur,Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 51, § 133.—
C. The conjunction nam sometimes follows a word of the clause (poet. and perh. not ante-Aug.; v. Lachm. ad Lucr. p. 246): “prohibent nam cetera Parcae Scire,Verg. A. 3, 379: “solam nam perfidus ille Te colere,id. ib. 4, 421; 10, 585; “1, 444: olim nam quaerere amabam,Hor. S. 2, 3, 20; 41: “ego nam videor mihi sanus,id. ib. 2, 3, 302: “his nam plebecula plaudit,id. Ep. 2, 1, 186.
II. In transitions.
B. Esp., in referring to a consideration too obvious to require discussion, for obviously, for it is certain, etc.: “postremo hoc in pectus tuum demitte, numquam populum Romanum beneficiis victum esse: nam bello quid valeat, tute scis,Sall. J. 102, 11; Liv. 39, 26, 3; Cic. Tusc. 4, 23, 52; Tac. H. 4, 76.
III. In interrogations, emphatically, expressing wonder or emotion in the questioner; cf. Gr. γάρ.
A. With an interrogative.
1. Beginning a sentence (anteclass. and poet.): perdidisti omnem operam? Ep. Nam quī perdidi? but how? but why? Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 29: “nam quem ego adspicio?id. Poen. 5, 3, 3: quid ego ago? Tr. Nam quid tu, malum, me rogitas quid agas? id. Most. 2, 1, 21: “nam quae haec anus est exanimata a fratre quae egressa'st meo?Ter. Phorm. 5, 1, 5: “nam quid ita?id. Eun. 5, 2, 58: “nam quem? alium habui neminem,id. ib. 4, 4, 13: “nam quam ob rem? (= quamnam),Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 2: “nam quā me causā extrusisti ex aedibus?id. Aul. 1, 1, 5 et saep.: “nam quis te, juvenum confidentissime, nostras Jussit adire domos?Verg. G. 4, 445 (but cf. Forbig. ad loc. and Kritz ad Sall. J. 19, 2): “nam quae tam sera moratur Segnities?id. A. 2, 373: “bellua multorum es capitum. Nam quid sequar aut quem?Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 76.—
3. Separated from the interrogative word: “quid tibi ex filio nam, obsecro, aegre est?Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 27: “quis ea'st nam optuma?id. Aul. 2, 1, 17; 3, 2, 3: “quid cerussa opus nam?id. Most. 1, 3, 101: “quis est nam ludus in undis?Verg. E. 9, 39.—
B. Without an interrogative word (very rare): scis nam tibi quae praecepi? Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 51. (For fuller details, v. Hand, Turs. 4, pp. 1-22.)
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