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prae-sum , fūi, esse, v. n.,
I.to be before a thing; hence, to be set over, to preside or rule over, to have the charge or command of, to superintend (class.).
(α). With dat.: “omnibus Druidibus praeest unus,Caes. B. G. 6, 12: “qui oppido praeerat,id. ib. 2, 6: “regionibus,id. ib. 5, 22: “provinciae,Sall. C. 42, 3: “censor factus, severe praefuit ei potestati,Nep. Cat. 2, 3: “classi,to have the command of the fleet, Caes. B. C. 3, 25: “exercitui,id. ib. 3, 57: “alicui negotio,to have charge of it, to carry it on, id. ib. 3, 61: “ei studio,Cic. de Or. 1, 55, 235: “artificio,id. Fin. 4, 27, 76: “vigiliis,to superintend, Sall. C. 30, 6: “regiis opibus,Nep. Con. 4, 3: “rebus regiis,id. Phoc. 3, 4: “statuis faciendis,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 59, § 144: “aedibus, i. e. aedilem esse,Dig. 1, 2, 2: mercimoniis, Cod. 5, 5, 7.—
(β). Absol.: “praeesse in provinciā,to be governor, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 77, § 180.—
II. Transf.
B. To protect, defend (poet.): “stant quoque pro nobis, et praesunt moenibus Urbis,Ov. F. 5, 135.—Hence, praesens , entis (abl. sing. of persons usually praesente; of things, praesenti), adj.
A. That is before one, in sight or at hand, present, in person (rarely of the immediate presence of the speaker or writer, for which the proper case of hic is used; cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 908, and v. infra): “assum praesens praesenti tibi,I am with you, Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 27: non quia ades praesens, dico hoc, because you happen to be present, Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 39: “quo praesente,in whose presence, Cic. de Or. 1, 24, 112: “quod adest quodque praesens est,id. Off. 1, 4, 11; so, “nihil nisi praesens et quod adest,id. Fin. 1, 17, 55: “vivi atque praesentes,id. Off. 1, 44, 156: “praesens tecum egi,myself, in person, id. Fam. 2, 7, 4: “perinde ac si ipse interfuerit, et praesens viderit,id. Inv. 1, 54, 104: “praesens sermo,communication by word of mouth, id. Q. Fr. 2, 8, 1: “praesens in praesentem multa dixerat,id. Att. 11, 12, 1; Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 34: praesente for praesentibus (ante-class.): praesente amicis, Pompon. ap. Don. ad Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 7; so, testibus, id. ap. Non. 154, 17: “his,Att. ib. 154, 19: “suis,Fenest. ib. 154, 20: “omnibus,Nov. ib. 154, 23: legatis, Varr. ap. Don. Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 7: nobis, Ter. ib.—
2. Esp., of time: “narratio praeteritarum rerum aut praesentium,Cic. Part. Or. 4, 13: “non solum inopia praesentis, sed etiam futuri temporis,Caes. B. C. 1, 52 init.: “praesens tempus futuri metu perdere,Sen. Ep. 24, 1: “tempus enim tribus partibus constat, praeterito, praesente, futuro,id. ib. 124, 17.—Esp. in opp. to other times referred to: “quanta tempestas invidiae nobis si minus in praesens tempus ... at in posteritatem impendeat,Cic. Cat. 1, 9, 22: “et reliqui temporis recuperandi ratio, et praesentis tuendi,id. Att. 8, 9, 3: “et consiliorum superiorum conscientiā et praesentis temporis moderatione me consoler,id. Fam. 9, 16, 6; id. Fl. 1, 3.—Very rarely alone, of the times of the writer or speaker. as opp. to the times of which he speaks: “quod pietas principis nostri praesentium quoque temporum decus fecit,Quint. 3, 7, 9: “vive moribus praeteritis, loquere verbis praesentibus,now in use, Gell. 1, 10, 4.—Also of a time spoken of, present to the mind, existing: “movit Scipionem cum fortuna pristina viri, praesenti fortunae conlata,Liv. 30, 13, 8: “populo erat persuasum, et adversas superiores et praesentes secundas res accidisse, etc.,Nep. Alcib. 6, 2: “praetor factus non solum praesenti bello,id. Them. 2, 1: “et praesens aetas et posteritas deinde mirata est,Curt. 9, 10, 28: “praesentem saevitiam melioris olim fortunae recordatione allevabant,Tac. A. 14, 63: in praesens tempus, and more freq. absol., in praesens, for the present: “pleraque differat, et praesens in tempus omittat,Hor. A. P. 44; so (opp. in posteritatem) Cic. Cat 1, 9, 22: “si fortuna in praesens deseruit,Tac. H. 4, 58; cf.: “laetus in praesens animus,Hor. C. 2, 16, 25: ad praesens tempus, or simply ad praesens, for the present: “Harpagus ad praesens tempus dissimulato dolore,for the moment, Just. 1, 5, 7: “quod factum aspere acceptum ad praesens, mox, etc.,at the time, Tac. A. 4, 31; 40: “munimentum ad praesens, in posterum ultionem,id. H. 1, 44; Suet. Tit. 6: “vocem adimere ad praesens,for a short time, Plin. 8, 22, 34, § 80: praesenti tempore and in praesenti, at present, now: “praesenti tempore,Ov. F. 3, 478: “haec ad te in praesenti scripsi, ut speres,Cic. Fam. 2, 10, 4: “in praesenti,Nep. Att. 12, 5; Liv. 34, 35, 11.—Prov.: praesenti fortuna pejor est futuri metus, Ps.-Quint. Decl. 12, 15.— Subst.: praesentĭa , ĭum, n., present circumstances, the present state of affairs: “cum hortatur ferenda esse praesentia,Suet. Aug. 87: “praesentia sequi,Tac. H. 4, 59: “ex praeteritis enim aestimari solent praesentia,Quint. 5, 10, 28: “sed penitus haerens amor fastidio praesentium accensus est,Curt. 8, 3, 6.—Esp., in phrase in praesentia (sc. tempora), for the present, at this time, under present circumstances: “hoc video in praesentia opus esse,Cic. Att. 15, 20, 4: “providere quid oneris in praesentia tollant,Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 1, § 1: “quae in praesentia in mentem mihi venerunt,id. Fam. 4, 5, 1; id. Fin. 5, 8, 21; Liv. 31, 22, 8; 33, 27, 10; 33, 28, 6; Tac. Agr. 31; 39; Suet. Tib. 22; id. Claud. 4; Ter. Phorm. 5, 2, 14; Plin. 12, 3, 7, § 14.—Very rarely in praesentia, at hand, on hand, on the spot: “id quod in praesentia vestimentorum fuit, arripuit,Nep. Alcib. 10, 5; cf.: in re praesenti, infra: in rem praesentem venire, to go to the place itself, go to the very spot, for the sake of a closer examination, Cic. de Or. 1, 58, 250: “in rem praesentem venias oportet, quia homines amplius oculis quam auribus credunt,Sen. Ep. 6, 5: in rem praesentem perducere audientes, to transport one's hearers to the very spot, Quint. 4, 2, 123: in re praesenti, in the place itself, on the spot: “in re praesenti, ex copiā piscariā consulere, quid emam, aequom est,when I am on the spot, Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 65; Liv. 40, 9: “eodem anno inter populum Carthaginiensem et regem Masinissam in re praesenti disceptatores Romani de agro fuerunt,id. 40, 17; Quint. 6, 2, 31: “praesenti bello,while war is raging, Nep. Them. 2, 1; so sup.: “quod praesentissimis quibusque periculis desit,Quint. 10, 7, 1; and comp.: “jam praesentior res erat,Liv. 2, 36, 5.—
B. That happens or is done immediately, immediate, instant, prompt, ready, direct: “praesens poena sit,the punishment might be instant, Cic. Div. 2, 59, 122: “preces,immediate, not delayed, Prop. 2, 23, 64 (3, 28, 12): “mercari praesenti pecuniā,with ready money, cash, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 8; Cic. Clu. 12, 34: “numerare praesentes denarios ducentos,Petr. 109: “nummi,id. 137: “supplicium,instant execution, Tac. A. 1, 38: “Maelium praesenti morte multavit,Flor. 1, 26: “praesens debitum,Dig. 12, 1, 9; 20, 1, 13: praesenti die dari, in ready money: “quoties in obligationibus dies non ponitur, praesenti die pecunia debetur,ib. 45, 1, 41: “libertatem aut praesenti die, aut sub condicione dare,ib. 28, 7, 22.—Hence, adv.: prae-sens (opp. in diem), forthwith, immediately: “si, cum in diem mihi deberetur, fraudator praesens solverit,in ready money, in cash, Dig. 42, 9, 10: “quod vel praesens vel ex die dari potest,ib. 7, 1, 4.—
C. That operates immediately or quickly, instant, prompt, efficacious, powerful (i. q. valens): “praesens auxilium oblatum est,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 49, § 107: “non ulla magis praesens fortuna laborum est,no more effective cure for their troubles, Verg. G. 3, 452: “quo non praesentius ullum, Pocula si quando saevae infecere novercae,id. ib. 2, 127: “si quid praesentius audes,more effective, bolder, id. A. 12, 152: “praesentissimum remedium,Col. 6, 14; Plin. 28, 5, 14, § 53.—With objectclause: “o diva ... Praesens vel imo tollere de gradu Mortale corpus, vel, etc.,mighty, able, Hor. C. 1, 35, 2.—
F. Appropriate, pertinent, timely: “praesens hic quidemst apologus,Plaut. Stich. 4, 1, 38; cf.: “en hercle praesens somnium,id. Mil. 2, 4, 41.
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