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săpĭo , īvi or ĭi (sapui, Aug. Civ. Dei, 1, 10; id. Ep. 102, 10; but sapivi, Nov. ap. Prisc. p. 879 P.; id. ap. Non. 508, 21:
I.saPisti,Mart. 9, 6, 7: “sapisset,Plaut. Rud. 4, 1, 8), 3, v. n. and a. [kindr. with ὀπός, σαφής, and σοφός], to taste, savor; to taste, smack, or savor of, to have a taste or flavor of a thing (cf. gusto).
I. Lit. (so only in a few examples).
1. Of things eaten or drunk: “oleum male sapiet,Cato, R. R. 66, 1: “occisam saepe sapere plus multo suem,Plaut. Mil. 2, 6, 104: “quin caseus jucundissime sapiat,Col. 7, 8, 2: “nil rhombus nil dama sapit,Juv. 11, 121.—With an acc. of that of or like which a thing tastes: “quis (piscis) saperet ipsum mare,Sen. Q. N. 3, 18, 2: “cum in Hispaniā multa mella herbam eam sapiunt,Plin. 11, 8, 8, § 18: “ipsum aprum (ursina),Petr. 66, 6.—Poet.: anas plebeium sapit, has a vulgar taste, Petr. poët. 93, 2: “quaesivit quidnam saperet simius,Phaedr. 3, 4, 3.—*
2. Of that which tastes, to have a taste or a sense of taste (perh. so used for the sake of the play upon signif. II.): “nec sequitur, ut, cui cor sapiat, ei non sapiat palatus,Cic. Fin. 2, 8, 24.—
3. Transf., of smell, to smell of or like a thing (syn.: oleo, redoleo; very rare): Cicero, Meliora, inquit, unguenta sunt, quae terram quam crocum sapiunt. Hoc enim maluit dixisse quam redolent. Ita est profecto; “illa erit optima, quae unguenta sapiat,Plin. 17, 5, 3, § 38: “invenitur unguenta gratiosiora esse, quae terram, quam quae crocum sapiunt,id. 13, 3, 4, § 21.—In a lusus verbb. with signif. II.: istic servus quid sapit? Ch. Hircum ab alis, Plaut. Ps. 2, 4, 47.—
II. Trop.
1. To taste or smell of, savor of, i. e.,
a. To resemble (late Lat.): “patruos,Pers. 1, 11.—
b. To suggest, be inspired by: “quia non sapis ea quae Dei sunt,Vulg. Matt. 16, 23; id. Marc. 8, 33.—
c. Altum or alta sapere, to be high-minded or proud: “noli altum sapere,Vulg. Rom. 11, 20: “non alta sapientes,id. ib. 12, 16.—
2. To have good taste, i.e. to have sense or discernment; to be sensible, discreet, prudent, wise, etc. (the predominant signif. in prose and poetry; most freq. in the P. a.).
(α). Neutr., Plaut. Ps. 2, 3, 14: “si aequum siet Me plus sapere quam vos, dederim vobis consilium catum, etc.,id. Ep. 2, 2, 73 sq.: “jam diu edepol sapientiam tuam abusa est haec quidem. Nunc hinc sapit, hinc sentit,id. Poen. 5, 4, 30; cf.: “populus est moderatior, quoad sentit et sapit tuerique vult per se constitutam rem publicam,Cic. Rep. 1, 42, 65; “so (with sentire),Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 292; id. Bacch. 4, 7, 19; id. Merc. 2, 2, 24; id. Trin. 3, 2, 10 sq.; cf.: “qui sapere et fari possit quae sentiat,Hor. Ep. 1, 4, 9; Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 14: “magna est admiratio copiose sapienterque dicentis, quem qui audiunt intellegere etiam et sapere plus quam ceteros arbitrantur,Cic. Off. 2, 14, 48: “veluti mater Plus quam se sapere Vult (filium),Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 27: “qui (puer) cum primum sapere coepit,Cic. Fam. 14, 1, 1; Poët. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 16, 1: “malo, si sapis, cavebis,if you are prudent, wise, Plaut. Cas. 4, 4, 17; so, “si sapis,id. Eun. 1, 1, 31; id. Men. 1, 2, 13; id. Am. 1, 1, 155; id. Aul. 2, 9, 5; id. Curc. 1, 1, 28 et saep.; Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 53; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 138: “si sapias,Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 39; 4, 4, 61; id. Poen. 1, 2, 138; Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 33; Ov. H. 5, 99; 20, 174: “si sapies,Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 78; id. Rud. 5, 3, 35; Ter. Heaut. 4, 4, 26; Ov. M. 14, 675: “si sapiam,Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 38; id. Rud. 1, 2, 8: “si sapiet,id. Bacch. 4, 9, 74: “si saperet,Cic. Quint. 4, 16: hi sapient, * Caes. B. G. 5, 30: Ph. Ibo. Pl. Sapis, you show your good sense, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 9; id. Merc. 5, 2, 40: “hic homo sapienter sapit,id. Poen. 3, 2, 26: “quae (meretrix) sapit in vino ad rem suam,id. Truc. 4, 4, 1; cf. id. Pers. 1, 3, 28: “ad omnia alia aetate sapimus rectius,Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 46: “haud stulte sapis,id. Heaut. 2, 3, 82: “te aliis consilium dare, Foris sapere,id. ib. 5, 1, 50: “pectus quoi sapit,Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 12; id. Mil. 3, 1, 191; id. Trin. 1, 2, 53; cf.: “cui cor sapiat,Cic. Fin. 2, 8, 24: “id (sc. animus mensque) sibi solum per se sapit, id sibi gaudet,Lucr. 3, 145.—
(β). Act., to know, understand a thing (in good prose usually only with general objects): “recte ego rem meam sapio,Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 81: “nullam rem,id. Most. 5, 1, 45: qui sibi semitam non sapiunt, alteri monstrant viam, Poët. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 58, 132; Cic. Att. 14, 5, 1; Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 65; cf.: “quamquam quis, qui aliquid sapiat, nunc esse beatus potest?Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1: “quantum ego sapio,Plin. Ep. 3, 6, 1: “jam nihil sapit nec sentit,Plaut. Bacch. 4, 7, 22: “nihil,Cic. Tusc. 2, 19, 45: “plane nihil,id. Div. in Caecil. 17, 55: nihil parvum, i. e. to occupy one's mind with nothing trivial (with sublimia cures), Hor. Ep. 1, 12, 15; cf.: cum sapimus patruos, i.e. resemble them, imitate them in severity, Pers. 1, 11. —
3. Prov.: sero sapiunt Phryges, are wise behind the time; or, as the Engl. saying is, are troubled with afterwit: “sero sapiunt Phryges proverbium est natum a Trojanis, qui decimo denique anno velle coeperant Helenam quaeque cum erant rapta reddere Achivis,Fest. p. 343 Müll.: “in Equo Trojano (a tragedy of Livius Andronicus or of Naevius) scis esse in extremo, Sero sapiunt. Tu tamen, mi vetule, non sero,Cic. Fam. 7, 16, 1.—Hence, -pĭens , entis (abl. sing. sapiente, Ov. M. 10, 622; gen. plur. sapientum, Lucr. 2, 8; Hor. S. 2, 3, 296; “but sapientium,id. C. 3, 21, 14), P. a. (acc. to II.), wise, knowing, sensible, well-advised, discreet, judicious (cf. prudens).
A. In gen.: “ut quisque maxime perspicit, quid in re quāque verissimum sit, quique acutissime et celerrime potest et videre et explicare rationem, is prudentissimus et sapientissimus rite haberi solet,Cic. Off. 1, 5, 16; cf.: “sapientissimum esse dicunt eum, cui quod opus sit ipsi veniat in mentem: proxume acceder illum, qui alterius bene inventis obtemperet,id. Clu. 31, 84: “M. Bucculeius, homo neque meo judicio stultus et suo valde sapiens,id. de Or. 1, 39, 179: “rex aequus ac sapiens,id. Rep. 1, 26, 42; cf.: “Cyrus justissimus sapientissimusque rex,id. ib. 1, 27, 43: “bonus et sapiens et peritus utilitatis civilis,id. ib. 2, 29, 52: “o, Neptune lepide, salve, Neque te aleator ullus est sapientior,Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 29: “quae tibi mulier videtur multo sapientissima?id. Stich. 1, 2, 66: “(Aurora) ibat ad hunc (Cephalum) sapiens a sene diva viro,wise, discreet, Ov. H. 4, 96 Ruhnk.; so, “puella,id. M. 10, 622: “mus pusillus quam sit sapiens bestia,Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 15; id. As. 3, 3, 114 et saep.—With gen. (analogous to gnarus, peritus, etc.): “qui sapiens rerum esse humanarum velit,Gell. 13, 8, 2.—Subst.: săpĭens , entis, m., a sensible, shrewd, knowing, discreet, or judicious person: “semper cavere hoc sapientes aequissimumst,Plaut. Rud. 4, 7, 20; cf.: “omnes sapientes suom officium aequom est colere et facere,id. Stich. 1, 1, 38; id. Trin. 2, 2, 84: “dictum sapienti sat est,id. Pers. 4, 7, 19; Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 8; Plaut. Rud. 2, 4, 15 sq.: “insani sapiens nomen ferat, aequus iniqui,Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 15: “sapiens causas reddet,id. S. 1, 4, 115: “quali victu sapiens utetur,id. ib. 2, 2, 63; 1, 3, 132.—In a lusus verbb. with the signif. of sapio, I., a person of nice taste: “qui utuntur vino vetere sapientes puto Et qui libenter veteres spectant fabulas,good judges, connoisseurs, Plaut. Cas. prol. 5: fecundae leporis sapiens sectabitur armos, Hor. S. 2, 4, 44.—As a surname of the jurists Atilius, C. Fabricius, M'. Curius, Ti. Coruncanius, Cato al., v. under B. fin.
B. After the predominance of Grecian civilization and literature, particularly of the Grecian philosophy, like σοφός, well acquainted with the true value of things, wise; and subst., a wise man, a sage (in Cic. saepiss.): ergo hic, quisquis est, qui moderatione et constantiā quietus animo est sibique ipse placatus ut nec tabescat molestiis nec frangatur timore nec sitienter quid expetens ardeat desiderio nec alacritate futili gestiens deliquescat; “is est sapiens quem quaerimus, is est beatus,Cic. Tusc. 4, 17, 37: “sapientium praecepta,id. Rep. 3, 4, 7: “si quod raro fit, id portentum putandum est: sapientem esse portentum est. Saepius enim mulam peperisse arbitror, quam sapientem fuisse,id. Div. 2, 28, 61: “statuere quid sit sapiens, vel maxime videtur esse sapientis,id. Ac. 2, 3, 9; cf. id. Rep. 1, 29, 45.—So esp. of the seven wise men of Greece: “ut ad Graecos referam orationem ... septem fuisse dicuntur uno tempore, qui sapientes et haberentur et vocarentur,Cic. de Or. 3, 34, 137: “eos vero septem quos Graeci sapientes nominaverunt,id. Rep. 1, 7, 12: “sapienti assentiri ... se sapientem profiteri,id. Fin. 2,3, 7.—Ironically: “sapientum octavus,Hor. S. 2, 3, 296.—With the Romans, an appellation of Lœlius: te, Laeli, sapientem et appellant et existimant. Tribuebatur hoc modo M. Catoni: scimus L. Atilium apud patres nostros appellatum esse sapientem, sed uterque alio quodam modo: Atilius, qui prudens esse in jure civili putabatur; “Cato quia multarum rerum usum habebat ... propterea quasi cognomen jam habebat in senectute sapientis ... Athenis unum accepimus et eum quidem etiam Apollinis oraculo sapientissimum judicatum,Cic. Lael. 2, 6; cf.: “numquam ego dicam C. Fabricium, M'. Curium, Ti. Coruncanium, quos sapientes nostri majores judicabant, ad istorum normam fuisse sapientes,id. ib. 5, 18: “ii, qui sapientes sunt habiti, M. Cato et C. Laelius,id. Off. 3, 4, 16; Val. Max. 4, 1, ext. 7; Lact. 4, 1.—Hence, adv.: săpĭen-ter , sensibly, discreetly, prudently, judiciously, wisely: “recte et sapienter facere,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 133; id. Mil. 3, 3, 34: “consulere,id. ib. 3, 1, 90: “insipienter factum sapienter ferre,id. Truc. 4, 3, 33: “factum,id. Aul. 3, 5, 3: “dicta,id. Rud. 4, 7, 24: “quam sapienter jam reges hoc nostri viderint,Cic. Rep. 2, 17, 31: “provisa,id. ib. 4, 3, 3: “a majoribus prodita fama,id. ib. 2, 2, 4: “considerate etiam sapienterque fecerunt,id. Phil. 4, 2, 6; 13, 6, 13: “vives sapienter,Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 44: “agendum,Ov. M. 13, 377: “temporibus uti,Nep. Epam. 3, 1; Hor. C. 4, 9, 48.—Comp.: “facis sapientius Quam pars latronum, etc.,Plaut. Curc. 4, 3, 15; id. Poen. prol. 7: “nemo est, qui tibi sapientius suadere possit te ipso,Cic. Fam. 2, 7, 1: “sapientius fecisse,id. Brut. 42, 155.—Sup.: “quod majores nostros et probavisse maxime et retinuisse sapientissime judico,Cic. Rep. 2, 37, 63.
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