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sĭmŭl (ante-class. also sĕmŭl , Plaut. Trin. prol. p. 97 Ritschl;
I.v. infra; and -mŏl , C. I. L. 1175 fin.; cf. Lorenz ad Plaut. Most. 96; cf. also simitu. The final l of simul was scarcely pronounced in the vulg. lang., and in comic poetry does not make position with an initial consonant following; v. Corss. Ausspr. 2, p. 643 sq.; Lorenz ad Plaut. Ps. 567), adv. Sanscr. sama-; Gr. ἅμα, ὅμος; cf. semel, = eodem tempore, unā, at the same time, together, at once, as soon as.
I. Referring, as temporal adverb, to plural nouns of the same sentence, and representing persons or things as acting, happening, etc., simultaneously.
3. Referring to plural attributes: “omnium simul rerum ... discrimine proposito,Liv. 6, 35, 6: “multarum simul civitatium legati Romam convenerunt,id. 43, 6, 1.—
4. Referring to an attributive participle understood: “multitudo plurium simul gentium (= simul eodem loco versantium),Liv. 44, 45: “trium simul bellorum victor (= eodem tempore gestorum),id. 6, 4, 1: “inter duo simul bella,id. 7, 27, 7: “tot simul malis victi,Curt. 4, 4, 12.
II. Referring to nouns, etc., connected by the preposition cum: simul cum = unā cum (v. una, s. v. unus), together with: “novi (illum) cum Calchā semul,Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 48: “jube in urbem veniat jam tecum semul,id. Most. 4, 2, 26: “qui ipsus equidem nunc primum istanc tecum conspicio semul?id. Am. 2, 2, 122: “me misisti ad portum cum luci semul,id. Stich. 2, 2, 40: “quae (amicitia) incepta a parvis cum aetate adcrevit simul,Ter. And. 3, 3, 7: “simul consilium cum re amīsti?id. Eun. 2, 2, 10: “Critolaum simul cum Diogene venisse commemoras,Cic. Or. 2, 38, 100: “Hortensius tecum simul pro Appio Claudio dixit,id. Brut. 64, 230: “cum corporibus simul animos interire,id. Lael. 4, 13: “vobiscum simul considerantis,id. Rep. 1, 46, 70: “testamentum Cyri simul obsignavi cum Clodio,id. Mil. 18, 48: “simul cum lege Aeliā magistratum iniit,id. Att. 1, 16, 13: “simul cum lumine pandit,id. Arat. 704 (452): “simul cum moribus immutatur fortuna,Sall. C. 2, 5: “cum animā simul,id. ib. 33, 4: “simul cum occasu solis,id. J. 91, 2: “simul cum dono designavit templi finis,Liv. 1, 10, 5: “si (dictator) se (Fabium) simul cum gloriā rei gestae extinxisset,id. 8, 31, 7: “ut cresceret simul et neglegentia cum audaciā hosti,id. 31, 36, 7; cf. Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 136; id. Aul. 4, 4, 28; id. Bacch. 4, 1, 5; id. Cist. 4, 2, 105; id. Ep. 1, 1, 39; id. Men. prol. 27; 2, 3, 54; 5, 1, 36; id. Merc. 2, 1, 31; id. Most. 1, 2, 17; Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 13; id. Tusc. 3, 18, 40; id. de Or. 2, 33, 142; 3, 3, 10; id. Arch. 12, 30; id. Sest. 22, 50; id. Fam. 15, 4, 8; Liv. 1, 31, 3; Nep. 3, 2; 11, 3; 18, 3; 23, 6; Quint. 11, 3, 65; Hor. Epod. 1, 8; id. S. 1, 1, 58.—Strengthened by una: “quippe omnes semul didicimus tecum unā,Plaut. Poen. 3, 1, 50; cf. id. Most. 4, 3, 43.—With ellipsis of mecum: “qui scribis morderi te interdum quod non simul sis,Cic. Att. 6, 2, 8.—Freq. cum eo (eis, etc.) must be supplied after simul, likewise, together with him, them, etc.: “in vigiliam quando ibat miles, tum tu ibas semul (i. e. cum eo)?Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 86: “cum simul P. Rutilius venisset,Cic. Rep. 1, 11, 17: “hos qui simul erant missi, fallere,id. Rosc. Am. 38, 110: “prae metu ne simul (i. e. cum iis) Romanus irrumperet,Liv. 5, 13, 13: “extra turbam ordinem conlocuntur semul (i. e. inter se),Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 69; cf. id. ib. 2, 2, 180; Cic. Pis. 34, 84; Liv. 6, 11, 5; Curt. 8, 13, 3.—Simul with abl. alone = cum with abl. (poet. and in post-Aug. prose; cf. Gr. ἅμα with dat.): “simul his,Hor. S. 1, 10, 86: “quippe simul nobis habitat,Ov. Tr. 5, 10, 29: “his simul,Sil. 3, 268: “Magnetibus simul transmissi,Tac. A. 4, 55: “quindecimviri septemviris simul,id. ib. 3, 64; cf. id. ib. 6, 9; Sil. 5, 418; Sen. Troad. 1049.
IV. Referring to two or more co-ordinate terms or facts representing these as simultaneous, and at the same time, and also, both ... and (at once), together.
1. Referring to co-ordinate terms of the same sentence.
a. Simul preceding all the coordinate terms which are connected by et, ac, atque, que, or by et ... et (freq. in the histt.): “semul flere sorbereque haud facile est,Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 104: “Q. Hortensi ingenium simul aspectum et probatum est,Cic. Brut. 64, 228: Bomilcar, simul cupidus incepta patrandi, et timore socii anxius, Sall. J. 70, 5: “dicenti lacrimae simul spiritum et vocem intercluserunt,Liv. 40, 16 init.: “quae simul auxilio tribunicio et consensu plebis impediri coepta,id. 6, 27, 9: “Lycios sub Rhodiorum simul imperio et tutelā esse,id. 41, 6 fin.: “Priverni qui simul a Fundanis ac Romanis defecerunt,id. 8, 19, 11: “simul divinae humanaeque spei pleni pugnam poscunt,id. 10, 40, 1: “eximio simul honoribus atque virtutibus,id. 6, 11, 3: “obruit animum simul luctus metusque,id. 42, 28; 5, 26, 10; Val. Max. 5, 2, 6: “simul ipsum Vitellium contemnebant metuebantque,Tac. H. 2, 92; cf. Liv. 3, 38, 12; 3, 50, 12; 5, 7, 3; 6, 18, 5; 6, 33, 9; 6, 40, 4; 9, 12, 4; 27, 51, 12; Caes. B. G. 7, 48; Curt. 5, 4, 30; Sen. Q. N. 2, 54, 2.—So with three or more co-ordinate terms, either all connected by et, Caes. B. G. 4, 24, 2; Quint. 1, 12, 3; 10, 7, 23; “or asyndetic: nunc simul res, fides, fama, virtus, decus deseruerunt,Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 60.—
c. Simul after the first of the co-ordinate terms (so not in Cic.): “convenit regnum simul atque locos ut haberet,Naev. Bell. Pun. 1, 6, fr. 3: “oculis simul ac mente turbatum,Liv. 7, 26, 5: “quod ubi auditum simul visumque est,id. 8, 39, 7: “pulvere simul ac sudore perfusum,Curt. 3, 5, 2: “terrestri simul navalique clade,id. 4, 3, 14: “vota nuncupabantur simul et solvebantur,Val. Max. 6, 9, ext. 5: “qui ima simul ac summa foveret aequaliter,Sen. Ep. 90, 25; cf. Liv. 4, 32, 12; Curt. 3, 8, 23; 6, 5, 19; 8, 5, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 30.—In post-Aug. prose without any temporal idea, = as well as: “populi Romani facta simul ac dicta memoratu digna ... deligere constitui,Val. Max. 1 prol.; so id. 1, 1, 9.—
d. Placed before the last term.
(γ). Simul, without any conjunction (so in Cic., but only poet.): “Neptuno grates habeo et tempestatibus, semul Mercurio qui, etc.,Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 3: “Electra Stereopeque, simul sanctissima Maja,Cic. Arat. 270 (36): “inter solis iter, simul inter flamina venti,id. ib. 342 (101): “ambiguus consilii, num Dyrrhachium pedite atque equite, simul longis navibus mare clauderet,Tac. H. 2, 83. —
2. Referring to two or more co-ordinate clauses or sentences.
b. Simul with autem or enim, introducing the second sentence: “salve! simul autem vale!Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1: augeamus sane suspicionem tuam; “simul enim augebimus diligentiam,Cic. Marc. 7, 22.—
c. Simul preceding co-ordinate sentences, generally connected by et ... et, but also by a single copulative conjunction: “simul enim et rei publicae consules, et propones ei exempla ad imitandum,Cic. Phil. 10, 2, 5: “illa autem altera ratio quae simul et opinionem falsam tollit, et aegritudinem detrahit,id. Tusc. 4, 28, 60: “simul et inopiam frumenti lenire, et ignaris omnibus parare,Sall. J. 91, 1: “nullus portus erat qui simul et omnīs onerarias caperet, et tecta legionibus praeberet,Liv. 32, 18, 3: “simul et cohors invasit, et ex omnibus oppidi partibus ... concurrerunt,id. 32, 24, 3: simul Metelli imagines dereptae, et missi qui Antonio nuntiarent. Tac. H. 3, 13; cf. Suet. Caes. 57.—
3. Referring to co-ordinate clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions: “Mnesilochum ut requiram atque ut eum mecum ad te adducam semul,Plaut. Bacch. 3, 5, 2: “tantum faciam ut notam apponam ... et simul significem, etc.,Cic. Fam. 13, 6, 2: “quod eo liberius ad te seribo, quia nostrae laudi favisti, simulque quod video non novitati esse invisum meae,id. ib. 1, 7, 8; 7, 10, 3.—If used in connecting dependent clauses, simul often stands for a co-ordinating conjunction; v. VI. infra.
V. Introducing an independent sentence, at the same time, also, likewise (cf.: itaque, igitur, deinde, tum, etc.).
VI. Simul itself stands as co-ordinating conjunction, to connect dependent clauses represented as contemporaneous, and at the same time, and also (not ante-class.; rare in Cic.; “freq. in the histt.): ei Verres possessionem negat se daturum, ne posset patronum suum juvare, simul ut esset poena quod, etc.,Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 47, § 124: “omnes vocat ad diripiendos Eburones, ut potius Gallorum vita quam legionarius miles periclitetur, simul ut ... pro tali facinore stirps et nomen civitatis tollatur,Caes. B. G. 6, 34: quippe foedum hominem a republicā procul esse volebat; “simul quia boni complures praesidium in eo putabant,Sall. C. 19, 2: “cujus de virtute, quia multi dixere, praetereundum puto, simul ne per insolentiam quis existumet memet studium meum laudando extollere,id. J. 4, 2: “nihil horum ... discere cum cerneret posse, simul et tirocinio et perturbatione juvenis moveretur, etc.,Liv. 39, 47: “a sermone Graeco puerum incipere malo, quia Latinum vel nobis nolentibus perhibet, simul quia disciplinis quoque Graecis prius instruendus est,Quint. 1, 1, 12; Sall. J. 20, 1; Liv. 39, 33, 1; 8, 6, 11; Caes. B. C. 43, 2; Sall. C. 20, 3; 56, 5; Liv. 3, 50, 10; 40, 36 init.; Tac. H. 1, 70; “2, 15.—So, connecting participial expressions or adverbial phrases with dependent clauses: his amicis confisus Catilina, simul quod aes alienum ingens erat, et quod ... opprimendae reipublicae consilium cepit,Sall. C. 16, 4: “hi, quod res in invidiā erat, simul et ab Numidis obsecrati,id. J. 25, 5: “ob eam iram, simul ut praeda militem aleret, duo milia peditum ... populari agrum jussit,Liv. 21, 52, 5; 3, 66, 3: “equites praemisit speculatum, simul ut ignem exstinguerent,Curt. 4, 10, 11: “Otho, quamquam turbidis rebus, etc., simul reputans non posse, etc.,Tac. H. 1, 83 init.: “committere igitur eum (locum) non fidelissimis sociis noluit, simul quod ab illā parte urbis navibus aditus ex alto est,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 32, § 84; Liv. 9, 2, 5; Tac. H. 1, 70 fin.; 2, 28; 2, 30.
VII. Simul. as co-ordinating conjunction, is frequently placed before each of the co-ordinate terms (simul ... simul = ἅμα μὲν ... ἅμα δέ), partly ... partly; not only ... but at the same time (not anteAug.).
VIII. Simul, in connection with ac, atque (also written in one word, sĭmŭlac , sĭmŭlatque ), rarely with ut, and very rarely with et, is used as subordinating, temporal conjunction, as soon as. For simulac, etc., simul alone is freq.
1. Simul ac: simul ac lacrimas de ore noegeo (i. e. candido) detersit, Liv. And. ap. Fest. p. 174 Müll.: “Demenaetum simul ac conspexero hodie,Plaut. As. 2, 4, 73: “non simul ac se ipse commovit, sensit quid intersit,Cic. Ac. 2, 16, 51: “si simul ac procul conspexit armatos, recessisset,id. Caecil. 16, 46: “dicebam, simul ac timere desisses, similem te futurum tui,id. Phil. 2, 35, 89: “Alcibiades, simul ac se remiserat, dissolutus reperiebatur,Nep. Alcib. 1. 4: “at mihi plaudo Ipse domi, simul ac nummos contemplor in arcā,Hor. S. 1, 1, 67; cf. Cic. N. D. 1, 38, 108; id. Fam. 15, 16, 2; id. Planc. 41, 98; id. Phil. 4, 1, 1; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 19, § 46; id. Or. 2, 27, 117; Verg. A. 4, 90; 12, 222; Ov. M. 2, 167; Hor. S. 1, 2, 33; 1, 4, 119; 1, 8, 21.—Strengthened by primum (= ut primum): “simul ac primum ei occasio visa est, quaestor consulem deseruit,Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 13, § 34; so id. ib. 2, 1, 52, § 138; id. Phil. 4, 1, 1; Suet. Caes. 30; id. Ner. 43.—
4. Simul et: “simul et quid erit certi, scribam ad te,Cic. Att. 2, 20, 2: “ego ad te statim habebo quod scribam, simul et videro Curionem,id. ib. 10, 4, 12: “quam accepi simul et in Cumanum veni,id. ib. 10, 16, 4; 16, 11, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6, 3. In all these passages the Cod. Med. has simul et, which the editors variously changed into simulatque, simulac, simul ut, simul; so, “omne animal simul et ortum est, se ipsum diligit,Cic. Fin. 2, 11, 33, where the vulg. has simul ut, and Madv. reads simul [et] ortum.—
5. Simul ubi: “quod simul ubi conspexit, equites emisit,Liv. 4, 18, 7 dub. Weissenb. ad loc.—
6. Simul alone, = simul atque: “simul herbae inceperint nasci,Cato, R. R. 48: “hic simul argentum repperit, curā sese expedivit,Ter. Phorm. 5, 4, 4: simul limen intrabo, illi extrabunt illico, Afran. ap. Non. 104, 21 (Com. Rel. v. 5 Rib.): “simul inflavit tibicen, a perito carmen agnoscitur,Cic. Ac. 2, 27, 86: “nostri, simul in arido constiterunt, in hostes impetum fecerunt,Caes. B. G. 4, 26 fin.: “simul increpuere arma, hostis pedem rettulit,Liv. 6, 24, 1; cf. Cic. Tusc. 4, 6, 12; id. Fin. 3, 6, 21; id. Arat. 594 (349); Caes. B. C. 1, 30, 3; Liv. 3, 62, 6; 4, 18, 6; 4, 31, 5; 4, 32, 6; 5, 25, 11; 8, 32, 2; 21, 55, 9; 44, 8 med.; 44, 19; 44, 44 fin.; Curt. 3, 11, 4; Phaedr. 3, 16, 16; Hor. C. 1, 12, 27; 3, 4, 37; Verg. G. 4, 232; Ov. F. 1, 567.—Strengthened by primum: “simul primum magistratio abiit, dicta dies est,Liv. 6, 1, 6: “simul primum anni tempus navigabile praebuisset mare,id. 35, 44, 5 Weissenb. ad loc.; Suet. Caes. 30.
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