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sŭpĕrus , a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the
I.nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages: “super inferque vicinus,Cato, R. R. 149, 1: “totus super ignis,Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superūm, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. super.
I. Posit.
A. Adj.
1. In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.: “at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36: “omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6: “ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,Cic. Lael. 3, 12: “limen superum inferumque salve,Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1: “portae Phrygiae limen,id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.): “carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138: “di,id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18: “superis deorum Gratus et imis,id. ib. 1, 10, 19: “ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64: “spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,id. N. D. 2, 56, 140: “omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,Verg. A. 6, 788: “supera ad convexa,to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.): “lumen,Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48: “domus deorum,Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44; “so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.: “de supero, quom huc accesserit,from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so, “ex supero,Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
2. In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions): “superā de parte,” i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855: “superas evadere ad auras,Verg. A. 6, 128: “superum ad lumen ire,id. ib. 6, 680: “aurae,Ov. M. 5, 641: “orae,Verg. A. 2, 91: “limen,id. ib. 6, 680.—
B. Substt.
1. Sŭpĕri , ōrum, m.
(α). They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6: “multum fleti ad superos,” i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481: “(Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.: “ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poët. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252: “epistula ad superos scripta,” i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
2. sŭpĕra , ōrum, n.
(α). The heavenly bodies: “Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.: “cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motūs superūm atque inferūm, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
(β). Higher places (sc. loca): “supera semper petunt,tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42: “(Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
II. Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor , ĭus.
A. Lit., of place, higher, upper: “inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,Caes. B. G. 7, 46: “dejectus quī potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?Cic. Caecin. 18, 50: “in superiore qui habito cenaculo,Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3: “tota domus superior vacat,the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10: “superior accumbere,Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42: “de loco superiore dicere,” i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102: “agere,” i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14; “and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,id. Fam. 3, 8, 2: “sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so, “ex loco superiore,id. ib. 3, 4: “loca,id. ib. 1, 10, 4; “3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,id. B. C. 3, 98: “qui in superiore acie constiterant,id. B. G. 1, 24: “ex superiore et ex inferiore scripturā docendum,” i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.: “posteriori superius non jungitur,id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
B. Trop.
b. Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former: “omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,Caes. B. C. 2, 5: “aetate superiores,Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1: “superior Africanus,the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121: “Dionysius,id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.: “quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
3. Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
III. Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
A.sŭperrĭ-mus , assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Müll.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
B. ^prēmus , a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
1. Lit. (only poet.; cf. “summus, C. 1.): montesque sŭpremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so, “montes,Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68: “rupes,Sen. Oedip. 95: “arx,Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.: “supremae Tethyos unda,Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
2. Trop.
a. Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
(α). In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma , ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis; “sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Müll.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212: “quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119: “supremo te sole domi manebo,at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3: “jubare exorto jam nocte supremā, Col. poët. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. —suprēmum , adverb., for the last time: “quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,Ov. M. 12, 526.—
(β). In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying: “supremo vitae die,Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75: “dies,id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13: “hora,Tib. 1, 1, 59: “tempus,Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151: “incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,” i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22: “mors,Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173: “finis,id. ib. 2, 1, 12: “iter,id. C. 2, 17, 11: “lumen,Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so, “ore,id. Tr. 3, 3, 87: “haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,Verg. A. 8, 583: “Nero in supremā irā duos calices crystallinos fregit,in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29; “supremis suis annis,in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58: “suprema ejus cura,id. 7, 45, 46, § 150: “spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61: “funera,Ov. M. 3, 137: “oscula,id. ib. 6, 278: “tori,” i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668: “ignis,id. Am. 1, 15, 41: “ignes,id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583: “officia,Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so, “tabulae,Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1: “tituli,” i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.: “Troiae sorte supremā,Verg. A. 5, 190: “dies regnis,Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō , adverb.: “animam sepulcro Condimus, et magnā supremum voce ciemus,for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526: “anima exitura supremo,Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.—Substt.
1. -prēmum , i, n., the last moment, end (very rare): “ventum ad supremum est,Verg. A. 12, 803.—
2. suprēma , ōrum, n.
(α). The last moments, the close of life, death: “ut me in supremis consolatus est!Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.: “statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93: “circa suprema Neronis,the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
(β). The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral: “supremis divi Augusti,Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45: “suprema ferre (sc. munera),Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
(γ). A last will, testament: “nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,Tac. A. 1, 8: “miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
(δ). The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
C. summus , a, um from sup-ĭmus, sup-mus, uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
1. Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.): “summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Müll. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.): “summum jugum montis,Caes. B. G. 1, 21: “summus mons,the top of, id. ib. 1, 22: “feriunt summos fulmina montes,the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poët. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48: “locus castrorum,Caes. B. G. 2, 23: “in summā sacrā viā,on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119: “in summā columnā conlocare,id. Div. 1, 24, 48: “quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119: “Janus summus ab imo,Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54: “ad aquam summam appropinquare,Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10: “in aquā summā natare,the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33: “apud summum puteum,id. Mil. 4, 4, 16: “per summa volare aequora,Verg. A. 5, 819: “summa cacumina linquunt,id. ib. 6, 678: “mari summo,id. ib. 1, 110: “prospexi Italiam summā ab undā,id. ib. 6, 357: “summaque per galeam delibans oscula,id. ib. 12, 434: “amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83: “summam cutem novaculā decerpito,Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table: “summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus , i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table: “standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so, “a summo dare (bibere),Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
b. summum , i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.: “ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,Caes. B. G. 6, 26: “qui demersi sunt in aquā ... si non longe absunt a summo,Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48: “leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,id. Div. 1, 17, 30: “igitur discubuere . . . in summo Antonius,Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch: “puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25: “nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.: “summa petere,Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
2. Transf., of the voice: “jubeo te salvere voce summā,Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.: “citaret Io Bacche! modo summā Voce, modo, etc.,at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7: “vox (opp. ima),Quint. 11, 3, 15: “summā voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.: “summo haec clamore,Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum , at the utmost or farthest: “exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2: “bis, terve summum,id. Fam. 2, 1, 1: “triduo aut summum quatriduo,id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
2. Trop.
a. Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.): “haec est praestituta summa argento dies,Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so, “venit summa dies,Verg. A. 2, 324: “ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31: “cum esset summā senectute,id. Phil. 8, 10, 31: “in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,Luc. 2, 211: “summo carmine,at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13: “eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio; “quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum , for the last time: “nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,Albin. 1, 137. —
b. Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summā nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summā industriā, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.): “summi puerorum amores,Cic. Lael. 10, 33: “spes civium,id. ib. 3, 11: “fides, constantia justitiaque,id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summāque inopiā, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72: “qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,id. ib. 6, 20: “non agam summo jure tecum,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4: “tres fratres summo loco nati,id. Fam. 2, 18, 2: “qui summo magistratui praeerat,Caes. B. G. 1, 16: “concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51: “quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,id. Inv. 1, 18, 26: “turpitudo,id. Lael. 17, 61: “summum in cruciatum se venire,Caes. B. G. 1, 31: “scelus,Sall. C. 12, 5: “hiems,the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2: “cum aestas summa esse coeperat,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80: “ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,id. Rep. 1, 34, 51: “summi ex Graeciā sapientissimique homines,id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.: “summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,id. de Or. 1, 2, 6: “optimi et summi viri diligentia,id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29: “summus Juppiter,id. Cist. 2, 1, 40: “ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,id. Am. 1, 2, 6: “miles summi inperatoris,Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68: “amicus summus,the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.: “nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.—Poet. in neutr. plur.: “summa ducum Atrides,the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86: “summo rei publicae tempore,at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46: “in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.: “summa salus rei publicae,id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so, “res publica,id. Planc. 27, 66; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2: “ad summam rem publicam,Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.: “quo res summa loco, Panthu?the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme: “non agam summo jure tecum,deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumniā quādam et nimis callidā juris interpretatione; “ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē , adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely: “quod me sollicitare summe solet,Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295: “cupere aliquid,id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15: “contendere,Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2: “diffidere,Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2: “admirari,Quint. 10, 1, 70: “summe jucundum,Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2: “officiosi,Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63: “summe disertus vir,Quint. 12, 1, 23: “summe munitus locus,Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31: “summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57: “mei summe observantissimus,Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.
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