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vērus , a, um, adj. etym. dub.; cf. Zend var, believe; Sanscr. var, choose, wish,
I.true, real, actual, genuine, etc. (opp. falsus, fictus).
B. Subst.: vērum , i, n., what is true or real, the truth, the reality, the fact: “interesse oportet, ut inter rectum et pravum, sic inter verum et falsum,Cic. Ac. 2, 11, 33: “notionem veri et falsi nullam habere,id. ib.: “verum dicere,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89; Ter. And. 2, 6, 6: “si simile veri quid invenerim,Cic. Ac. 2, 20, 66; id. Rep. 3, 5, 8: “si verum scire vis,id. Att. 12, 41, 3: “si verum quaerimus,id. Tusc. 2, 23, 55: “verum quidem si audire volumus,id. Brut. 73, 256: “verum non libenter audire,Mart. 8, 76, 8: “minor est tua gloria vero,Ov. H. 15 (16), 143: “ut quid hujus veri sit, sciam,Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 72; cf.: “non pervident quid sit in vero,actually, really, Lact. 1, 17, 1.—So the freq. construction of the gen. veri with similis, similiter, and similitudo (by many also joined together in one word, verisimilis, etc.): “narrationem jubent veri similem esse,Cic. de Or. 2, 19, 80: “id quod veri simile occurrit,id. Tusc. 2, 2, 5: “veri simillimum mihi videtur, quodam tempore, etc.,id. Inv. 1, 3, 4: “veri similiora,id. N. D. 1, 24, 66: “res similis veri,Liv. 26, 38, 9: “simillimum veri,Cic. Tusc. 5, 4, 11: “quod est magis verisimile,Caes. B. G. 3, 13: “veri similiter fingere,App. Mag. p. 293: “veri similius,id. ib. and p. 312; Tert. Apol. 16: “veri similitudinem sequi,Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 107; Sen. Ben. 4, 33, 2; genuine, Plin. 34, 7, 17, § 66; cf.“, in a reversed order: similitudo veri,Cic. Part. Or. 11, 40; id. Univ. 3: “res facit controversiam aut de vero aut de recto aut de nomine,respecting fact, id. Or. 34, 121: “nec procul a vero est, quod,from the truth, Ov. Tr. 5, 6, 27: “ex vero positum permansit Equiria nomen,id. F. 2, 859: “in vero esse,to be true, Lact. 1, 11, 31; 1, 17, 1: “teneras aures mordaci radere vero,Pers. 1, 107.—Plur.: “recta et vera loquere,Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 7: “vera dico,id. Am. 1, 1, 239; 2, 1, 12; 2, 2, 55 al.: “artem se tradere vera ac falsa dijudicandi,Cic. de Or. 2, 38, 157: “qui species alias veris ... caput (= alias ab iis quae verae sunt, Orell.),Hor. S. 2, 3, 208: “adjecta veris credibilis rerum imago,Quint. 4, 2, 123: “vis dicam tibi veriora veris?Mart. 6, 30, 6.
II. Transf.
A. Like rectus, consonant with reason or good morals, i. e. right, proper, fitting, suitable, reasonable, just (class.): “ah, Idnest verum?Ter. And. 4, 1, 5: “cum aliquid verum ac rectum esse dicitur,Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34: “quod est rectum, verum quoque est,id. ib. 2, 5, 11: “omnia recta, vera,id. Tusc. 3, 27, 64: “lex vera atque princeps,id. Leg. 2, 4, 10: “quibus peritia et verum ingenium est,Sall. H. 1, 111 Dietsch: “ea, si vera existimare voles, maxume hortabuntur,id. ib. 4, 61, 3 ib.: “nil Grosphus nisi verum orabit et aequum,Hor. Ep. 1, 12, 23.—
2. Esp., verum est, with subject-clause (so most freq. = aequum est, etc.): “neque verum esso, qui suos fines tueri non potuerint, alienos occupare,Caes. B. G. 4, 8: “(Cato) negat verum esse, allici benevolentiam cibo,Cic. Mur. 35, 74: “verum est, (agrum) habere eos, quorum sanguine ac sudore partus sit,Liv. 2, 48, 2; 3, 40, 11; 24, 48, 11; “28, 13, 7: metiri se quemque suo modulo ac pede, verum est,Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 98; id. S. 2, 3, 212: “verius esse, Ti. Sempronio imperium habenti tradi exercitum quam legato,Liv. 35, 8, 6: “me verius unum Pro vobis foedus luere,Verg. A. 12, 694: si verum est, with acc. and inf., if the view is correct, Cic. N. D. 3, 31, 77; Liv. 30, 26, 7.— Rarely with ut: “praeclarum illud est, et, si quaeris, rectum quoque et verum, ut, etc.,right and just, Cic. Tusc. 3, 29, 73: “si verum est, quod nemo dubitat, ut populus Romanus superarit, etc.,Nep. Hann. 1, 1.—
3. Subst.: vērum , i, n., honor, duty: “in senatu parsilla, quae vero pretium aut gratiam anteferebat,Sall. J. 16, 1.—
B. Speaking or containing the truth, true, veracious, = veridicus (rare): “sum verus?Ter. And. 2, 5, 12: “vates,Ov. H. 16, 123: “Apollinis os,id. M. 10, 209: “judicium viri eruditissimi ac super ista verissimi,Plin. Ep. 9, 25, 2; 2, 9, 4; cf.: “quo viro nihil firmius, nihil verius,id. ib. 4, 22, 3: “verissimus et sapientissimus judex,most conscientious, Cic. Rosc. Am. 30, 84.—Advv.
A. vērum .
1. Lit., truly, just so, certainly, doubtless, even so, yes, as a confirmatory reply (ante-class. and rare, while vero is classical; v. vero init.): So. Facies? Ch. Verum, Ter. Heaut. 5, 3, 11; Plaut. As. 4, 2, 45. Ct. Men' quaerit? Sy. Verum, Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 4; id. Eun. 2, 3, 56; 5, 6, 18.—
2. Transf.
(β). In the construction non modo (solum, tantum) ... verum etiam (quoque), not only ... but also: “non modo agendo, verum etiam cogitando,Cic. Cael. 19, 45; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 66, § 161: “non solum naturā et moribus, verum etiam studio et doctrinā,id. Lael. 2, 6: “non ingrato tantum, verum etiam invido et crudeli animo,Just. 21, 6, 7: “servavit ab omni Non solum facto, verum opprobrio quoque turpi,Hor. S. 1, 6, 84: non modo ... verum ne ... quidem, not only not ... but not even, Cic. Rep. 3, 30, 42.—
b. In partic.
(α). In a transition, but, yet, still (freq. and class.): “non edepol nunc, ubi terrarum sim scio, si quis roget ... Ilicet, mandata eri perierunt una et Sosia, Verum certum'st confidenter hominem contra adloqui,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 183: “deinde hoc vobis confirmo, etc.... verum quod ego laboribus, etc.... me persecuturum esse polliceor, etc.,Cic. Verr. 1, 17, 51: verum schemata λέξεως duorum sunt generum, Quint. 9, 3, 2: “verum etiamsi quis summa desperet,id. 12, 11, 26: “verum veniat sane,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 31, § 76 et saep.—Strengthened by enim, vero, and (in class. prose) enimvero, but truly, but indeed: “verum enim, quando bene promeruit, fiat,Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 47: verum vero inter offam atque herbam, ibi vero longum intervallum est, Cato ap. Gell. 13, 17, 1: “verum hercle vero,Plaut. Curc. 3, 5: “si ullo in loco ejus provinciae frumentum tanti fuit, quanti, etc. Verum enim vero cum, etc.,Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 194; so, “verum enim vero,id. de Or. 3, 14, 54 N. cr.; Sall. C. 20, 10; Liv. 4, 4, 8.—
(β). In breaking off the current of discourse (cf. sed), but however, but: “exspectabantur Calendae Januariae, fortasse non recte. Verum praeterita omittamus,Cic. Phil. 5, 12, 31: verum quidem haec hactenus; “cetera quotiescumque voletis,id. Tusc. 3, 34, 84: “sed hoc nihil ad me ... Verum hoc (ut dixi) nihil ad me. Illud ad me, etc.,id. de Or. 2, 32, 139.—
B. vērō , in truth, in fact, certainly, truly, to be sure, surely, assuredly: “eho, mavis vituperari falso, quam vero extolli?Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 21: “iste eum sese ait, qui non est, esse: et qui vero est negat,id. Capt. 3, 4, 35: Tox. Amplectere sis. Lemn. Ego vero, id. Pers. 5, 1, 12; cf. Curt. 6, 3, 5: As. Ego non novi adulescentem vostrum. St. Veron'? As. Serio, Plaut. Truc. 2, 2, 47: “veron' serio?id. Merc. 4, 1, 19: “itane vero obturbat?Ter. And. 5, 4, 23: Ch. Vah, gloriare evenisse ex sententiā? Sy. Non hercle vero, verum dico, id. Heaut. 4, 5, 18: “quod de domo scribis ... ego vero tum denique mihi videbor restitutus, si, etc.,Cic. Fam. 14, 2, 3; cf. “even at the beginning of a letter: ego vero cupio te ad me venire,I do really wish, id. ib. 14, 16, 10; so, “ego vero vellem,id. ib. 4, 6, 1: “cum effusis gaudio lacrimis cupere vero diceret, etc.,Liv. 27, 19, 12; Plin. Ep. 9, 20, 1.— “Esp., in apodosis, tum vero: postea quam ad causam dicendam ventum est, tum vero sine metu omnes erant, etc.,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; Sall. J. 94, 3; Stat. Th. 1, 412; cf. “tum, III. B. 1.—Ironically: sane quia vero hae mihi patent semper fores,Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 9: “multum vero haec eis jura profuerunt,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 47, § 124: “turpem vero actionem, etc.,id. Phil. 13, 11, 25: “egregiam vero laudem refertis,Verg. A. 4, 93.—With immo: “immo vero indignum facinus faxo ex me audies,Ter. And. 5, 2, 13. —
b. In corroborative replies, yes, certainly, by all means, assuredly, etc. (class.; while verum in this sense is only ante-class.): De. An quid est etiam amplius? He. Vero amplius, Ter. Ad. 3, 4, 23; id. Eun. 3, 1, 12: M. Fuisti saepe, credo, in scholis philosophorum. A. Vero, ac libenter quidem, Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 26: “sed tu orationes nobis veteres explicabis? Vero, inquam, Brute,id. Brut. 87, 300: “tu vero, inquam, Tite,id. ib. 85, 292: “nos vero, inquit ille,id. Fin. 4, 28, 80: M. Cadere, opinor, in sapientem aegritudinem tibi dixisti videri. A. Et vero ita existimo, id. Tusc. 3, 6, 12.—With immo, nay rather: De. Quin tu mi argentum cedo. Ph. Immo vero uxorem tu cedo, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 43: “sed da mihi nunc, satisne probas? Immo vero et haec, etc.,Cic. Ac. 1, 3, 10: “immo vero, inquit, ii vivunt, qui, etc.,id. Rep. 6, 14, 14: S. Quid domi? pluresne praesunt negotiis tuis? L. Immo vero unus, inquit, id. ib. 1, 39, 61.—And, to strengthen negative answers, joined with minime: S. Quid? totam domum num quis alter, praeter te, regit? L. Minime vero, Cic. Rep. 1, 39, 61; 3, 32, 44; id. Ac. 1, 1, 2; id. Off. 3, 6, 29 al.
c. In urgent or encouraging expostulation, but, though, however, etc.: Ni. Cape hoc tibi aurum, Chrysale, i, fer filio. Ch. Non equidem accipiam. Ni. Cape vero: “odiose facis,take it though, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 139: “respice vero,id. Ep. 1, 1, 3: “ostende vero,id. ib. 5, 2, 58: “minue vero iram,Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 88.—
C. vērē , according to truth, truly, really, in fact; properly, rightly, aright: “hoc quom fit, ibi non vere vivitur,Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 102 Fleck.: “honestum, quod proprie vereque dicitur, id in sapientibus est solis,Cic. Off. 3, 3, 13: “quis putare vere potest, etc.,id. Rep. 1, 17, 28: “vere ducere,id. ib. 1, 38, 60: “verene hoc memoriae proditum est? etc.,id. ib. 2, 15, 28: “immo, si vere volumus dicere, jam incohavit bellum,Liv. 41, 23, 13: “omnia vere vates locuta est,Verg. A. 6, 188: “vere an dolo,Spart. Sev. 5.—Comp.: “libentius quam verius,Cic. Mil. 29, 78: “Ligures latrones verius quam justi hostes,Liv. 40, 27, 10.—Sup.: “verissime loquor,Cic. Att. 5, 21, 7: “verissime dicere,id. Rep. 2, 4, 8.
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