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vălĕo , ŭi, ĭtum, 2, v. n. kindr. with Sanscr. bála, vis, robur, balishtas, fortissimus; cf. debilis,
I.to be strong.
I. Lit., of physical strength, vigor, or health.
A. In gen., to be strong, stout, or vigorous, to have strength (cf.: polleo, vigeo).
1. Absol.: verum illi valent, qui vi luctantur cum leonibus, Pomp. ap. Non. 112, 4 (Com. Rel. v. 176 Rib.): “puer ille (Hercules recens natus) ut magnus est et multum valet!Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 51: plus potest, qui plus valet: Vir erat; “plus valebat,id. Truc. 4, 3, 38 sq.: “sanus homo, qui bene valet,Cels. 1, 1 init.: “si magis valet,id. 3, 18: “si satis valet (= si satis validae vires sunt, just before),id. 4, 7 init.: “prout nervi valent,id. 8, 16.—Of plants: “vitem novellam resecari tum erit tempus ubi valebit,Cato, R. R. 33, 3 sq.
2. To be strong in or for something, to have the power or strength, be in condition to do something, etc.
a. Of personal subjects, etc.
b. Of remedies or medicines, to be efficacious, be good for any thing; with ad and acc.: “fimum potum ad dysentericos valet,Plin. 28, 8, 27, § 105.—With contra: “cimices valent contra serpentium morsus,Plin. 29, 4, 17, § 61.—With eodem: “id quoque collyrium eodem valet,Cels. 6, 6, 21.—With pro: “ruta per se pro antidoto valet,Plin. 20, 13, 51, § 132.—With abl.: “dictamnus valet potu et illitu et suffitu,Plin. 26, 15, 90, § 153.— With inf.: “sandaracha valet purgare, sistere, excalfacere, perrodere,Plin. 34, 18, 55, § 177.—
c. Of sounds: cum C ac similiter G non valuerunt, in T ac D molliuntur, i. e. were not pronounced strongly, Quint. 1, 11, 5.—
B. Esp., in respect of the natural condition of the body, to be well in health, to be in a sound or healthy condition, to be healthy, hale, hearty.
a. In gen.
(α). Absol.: “equidem valeo recte et salvus sum,Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 36: “perpetuon' valuisti?id. Ep. 1, 1, 15; 1, 1, 18: “valen'? Valuistin? valeo et valui rectius,id. Trin. 1, 2, 12 sq.: facile omnes, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus, Ter. And. 2, 1, 9: “dicit vilicus servos non valuisse,Cato, R. R. 2, 3 sq.; 5, 6: “boves ut recte valeant,id. ib. 103: “optime valere et gravissime aegrotare,Cic. Fin. 2, 13, 43; 4, 25, 69: “cura est, ut valeat,Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 4: “ego valeo recte et rem gero,id. Pers. 2, 3, 34: “te recte valere operamque dare, ut cottidie melius,Cic. Fam. 11, 24, 1: deterius quam soleo, Luccei. ib. 5, 14, 1: “commode,Plin. Ep. 3, 20, 11: Ni. Benene usque valuit? Chr. Pancratice atque athletice, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 14: “minus valere ... melius valere,Cic. Att. 4, 14, 1: “nam matri oculi si valerent, mecum venisset simul,Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 8.—
(γ). With ab and abl.: “ab oculis,Gell. 13, 30, 10: “a morbo,Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 26; and facetiously: Me. Ain tu te valere? Eu. Pol ego haud a pecuniā perbene, as to money, not very well, id. Aul. 2, 2, 9.—
b. Esp., at the commencement of letters (very freq.), si vales, bene est, and abbreviated S. V. B. E.; “and, more fully, with the addition ego or equidem valeo (abbrev. E. V. or E. Q. V.),Cic. Fam. 13, 6; 14, 11; 14, 16; 14, 17; 14, 21; 14, 22; 14, 23; 14, 24; 15, 1; 15, 2; Metell. ib. 5, 1; Vatin. ib. 5, 9; Luccei. ib. 5, 14 al.; cf.: “mos antiquis fuit usque ad meam servatus aetatem, primis epistulae verbis adicere: Si vales bene est,Sen. Ep. 15, 1; so too: S. V. G. V. (si vales, gaudeo, valeo) et Tullia nostra recte V. Terentia minus belle habuit: sed certum scio jam convaluisse eam, Dolab. ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 9, 1.—
c. Rarely impers. pass.: “quid agitur, Sagaristio? ut valetur?Plaut. Pers. 2, 5, 8.—
d. Vale or valeas, in leave-taking, farewell, adieu (cf.: salve, ave).
(α). In gen.: Di. Valeas. Ph. Vale, Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 79: Ar. Vale. Ph. Quo properas? Ar. Bene vale, id. As. 3, 3, 16; id. Mil. 4, 8, 51: “bene vale, Alcumena,id. Am. 1, 3, 1: “vale atque salve,id. Capt. 3, 5, 86; id. Curc. 4, 2, 36: vale atque salve. Th. Male vale, male sit tibi, id. ib. 4, 4, 32; v. salvus: Ly. Ad portum propero. De. Bene ambulato. Ly. Bene valeto. De. Bene sit tibi, id. Merc. 2, 2, 55: “bene valete et vivite,id. Mil. 4, 8, 30: “ite intro cito: valete,id. As. 3, 3, 155: “abeo: valete, judices justissimi,id. Capt. prol. 67: “vos valete et plaudite,Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 64: “in hoc biduom vale,id. ib. 1, 2, 110: “vive valeque,Hor. S. 2, 5, 110.—Before a vowel, scanned vălĕ: “et longum, Formose valē, valē, inquit Iolla,Verg. E. 3, 79; Ov. M. 3, 501.—
(β). At the conclusion of letters: “Vale,Cic. Fam. 6, 22, 3; 6, 21, 3; 4, 8, 2; Luccei. ib. 5, 14, 3: “cura ut valeas,Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; 7, 20, 3; rarely bene vale, Mat. ib. 11, 28, 8; Cur. ib. 7, 29, 2; cf.: “tu me diligis et valebis,Cic. ib. 9, 22, 5; 15, 18, 2: fac valeas meque mutuo diligas, Planc. ib. 10, 7, 2; Mat. ib. 11, 28, 8.—
(γ). Also in bidding farewell to the dead: “salve aeternum mihi, maxime Palla, Aeternumque vale,Verg. A. 11, 97; Stat. S. 3, 3, 208; cf. Varr. ap. Serv. Verg. l. l.; “v. salvus: in perpetuom, frater, ave atque vale,Cat. 101, 10: “terque, Vale, dixit,Ov. F. 3, 563: “supremumque vale ... dixit,id. M. 10, 62.—
(δ). As an expression of dismission, refusal, or scorn, be off, begone: “valeas, tibi habeas res tuas, reddas meas,Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 46: “immo habeat, valeat, vivat cum illā,Ter. And. 5, 3, 18: “valeas, habeas illam quae placet,id. Ad. 4, 4, 14: “si talis est deus, ut nullā hominum caritate teneatur, valeat,good-by to him, let me have nothing to do with him, Cic. N. D. 1, 44, 124: “valeat res ludicra, si me Palma negata macrum, donata reducit opimum,Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 180: valeant, Qui inter nos discidium volunt, away with those, etc., Ter. And. 4, 2, 13: “quare ista valeant: me res familiaris movet,Cic. Att. 16, 15, 5: castra peto, valeatque Venus, valeantque puellae, farewell to Venus, etc., Tib. 2, 6, 9: “valete curae,Petr. 79; cf. Cat. 8, 12; 11, 17; Ov. Am. 1, 6, 71 sqq.—(ε) With valere jubere or dicere (sometimes as one word, vălĕdīco , ĕre, 3, v. n.), to bid one good-by, farewell, adieu: “illum salutavi: post etiam jussi valere,Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2: “vix illud potui dicere triste vale,Ov. H. 13, 14: “saepe vale dicto rursus sum multa locutus,id. Tr. 1, 3, 57: “tibi valedicere non licet gratis,Sen. Ep. 17, 11; Sulp. Sev. Dial. 1, 3, 1: obstinatissime retinuit, ut liberti servique bis die frequentes adessent ac mane salvere, vesperi valere sibi singuli dicerent, Suet. Galb. 4 fin.; id. Aug. 53; id. Tib. 72.—So (late Lat.): “vale facere (or valefacere),August. Ep. 65; App. M. 4, p. 150, 24.
II. Transf., to have power, force, or influence; to be powerful, effective, valid; to avail, prevail, be strong, effective, etc.
B. Esp.
1. With respect to the source, character, or mode of exercise of the strength ascribed to the subject.
2. With some definite end expressed, upon or towards which influence or power is exercised or directed, to be strong enough for, adequate to, or capable of any thing, to be able to do, to have force or efficacy, to be effectual, to avail, to be applicable.
b. With eo: oratio me cohortabatur, ut, etc. ... quod eo, credo, valebat, ut caerimonias religionesque defenderem, the force or point of which was, etc., Cic. N. D. 3, 2, 5: “id responsum quo valeat, cum intellegeret nemo,Nep. Them. 2, 6; cf. II. B. 3. ι, infra.—
c. With ad and acc. of thing: “tu non solum ad neglegendas leges ... verum etiam ad evertendas valuisti,Cic. Cat. 1, 7, 18: astrorum affectio valeat, si vis, ad quasdam res; “ad omnis certe non valebit,id. Fat. 4, 8: “illud perficiam ut invidia mihi valeat ad gloriam,id. Cat. 3, 12, 29: “vitae adjuncta esse dicebant, quae ad virtutis usum valerent,id. Ac. 1, 5, 21: “ista quaestura ad eam rem valet, ut, etc.,id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 62: neque, quod Samnites ... amici vobis facti sunt, ad id valere arbitror, ne nos in amicitiam accipiamur, Liv. 7, 30, 4: “eadem fictio valet et ad qualitates,Quint. 5, 10, 99; cf. II. B. 3. infra.—
d. With apud or ad and acc. of person influenced, etc.
e. With contra and acc.: “hoc nonne videtur contra te valere?Cic. Ac. 2, 27, 86: “quae valeant contra falsam criminationem,id. de Or. 2, 79, 321: “ne quid esset ... quod contra caput suum aut existimationem valere posset,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 71, § 173: ne meae vitae modestia parum valitura sit contra falsos rumores, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 8: “cum pro falsis contra veritatem (rhetorice) valet,Quint. 2, 16, 2; cf. f. infra.—
f. With pro and abl.: “multa in adversos effudit verba penates Pro deplorato non valitura viro,Ov. Tr. 1, 3, 46: “epitheton valet pro nomine,Quint. 8, 6, 29; cf. I. A. 2, b. supra.—
g. With dat. gerund. (post-class. and rare): “nam et augendae rei et minuendae valet (particula),Gell. 5, 12, 10.—
3. With adverbial qualifications expressing the degree of power or influence exerted, etc.; very freq. with accs- multum, plus, plurimum, parum, minus, minimum, nihil, tantum, quantum, quid, id, idem, quiddam, quidquam, quidquid, etc.
(α). Edepol, Cupido, cum tu tam pusillu's, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. 421, 25 (Com. Rel. v. 55 Rib.): “plus potest qui plus valet,Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38: “neque ita inperita (sum), ut quid amor valeat nesciam,Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 42.—So absol.: nam opulenti cum locuntur pariter atque ignobiles, Eadem dicta eademque oratio aequa non aeque valet, Enn. ap. Gell. 11, 4, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 230 Vahl.): “ignari quid gravitas ... quid denique virtus valeret,Cic. Sest. 28, 60: “illa obnuntiatio nihil valuit, aut, si valuit, id valuit, ut, etc.,id. Div. 1, 16, 30: omnia veniebant Antonio in mentem; “eaque suo quaeque loco, ubi plurimum proficere et valere possent ... collocabantur,id. Brut. 37, 139: “cur minus Venena Medaeae valent?Hor. Epod. 5.62.—
(δ). With ad and acc.: “multum valuisse ad patris honorem pietas filii videbitur,Cic. Phil. 9, 5, 12: “ex quo intellegitur, plus terrarum situs, quam lunae tractus, ad nascendum valere,id. Div. 2, 46, 97: “valet igitur multum ad vincendum probari mores eorum, qui agent causas,id. de Or. 2, 43, 182: “ad subeundem periculum et ad vitandum multum fortuna valuit,Caes. B. G. 6, 30: “genus ad probandam speciem minimum valet,Quint. 5, 10, 56.—(ε) With apud and acc. of pers., to have influence, be influential, have weight with, influence: “apud quem (Caesarem) quicquid valebo vel auctoritate, vel gratiā, valebo tibi,Cic. Fam. 6, 6, 13: “utrum apud eos pudor atque officium, an timor plus valeret,Caes. B. G. 1, 40: “tantum apud homines barbaros valuit, esse repertos aliquos principes belli inferendi,id. ib. 5, 54: “potestis constituere, hanc auctoritatem quantum apud exteras nationes valituram esse existimetis,Cic. Imp. Pomp. 16, 46: “non modo praemiis, quae apud me minimum valent, sed ne periculis quidem conpulsus ullis,id. Fam. 1, 9, 11: “facinus esse indignum, plus impudicissimae mulieris apud te de Cleomenis salute quam de suā vitā lacrimas matris valere,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 112: “apud quem ut multum gratiā valeret, effecit,Nep. Con. 2, 1.—(ζ) With contra: cur desperemus veritatem contra fallacem facundiam valituram? prevail, Lact. Opif. Dei, 20, 5; cf. Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 8, II. B. 2, e. supra.—(η) With pro: “pro periculo magis quam contra salutem valere,Cic. Part. Or. 35, 120; cf.: “quod minus multitudine militum legionariorum pro hostium numero valebat,Caes. B. G. 1, 51.—(θ) With inter: “plurimum inter eos Bellovacos et virtute, et auctoritate, et hominum numero valere,Caes. B. G. 2, 4.—(ι) With adv. of pur pose: “hoc eo valebat, ut ingratiis ad de pugnandum omnes cogerentur,Nep. Them. 4, 4: “non tamen hoc eo valet, ut fugien dae sint magnae scholae,Quint. 1, 2, 16: “nescis quo valeat nummus, quem praebeat usum?Hor. S. 1, 1, 73; cf. II. B. 2. b. supra. —
C. Idiomatic uses.
1. Of money value, to be of the value of, be worth: denarii, quod denos aeris valebant; “quinarii, quod quinos,Varr. L. L. 5, § 173 Müll.: “dum pro argenteis decem aureus unus valeret,Liv. 38, 11, 8: “ita ut scrupulum valeret sestertiis vicenis,Plin. 33, 3, 13, § 47: “si haec praedia valeant nunc decem,Dig. 24, 1, 7, § 4: “quasi minimo valeret hereditas,ib. 19, 1, 13: “quanti omnibus valet (servus),ib. 9, 2, 33; 5, 3, 25, § 1.—
2. Of the signification of words, sentences, etc.; like the Gr. δύνασθαι, to mean, signify, import: “quaerimus verbum Latinum par Graeco et quod idem valeat,Cic. Fin. 2, 4, 13: non usquam id quidem dicit omnino; “sed quae dicit, idem valent,id. Tusc. 5, 10, 24: “quamquam vocabula prope idem valere videantur,id. Top. 8, 34: “hoc verbum quid valeat, non vident,id. Off. 3, 9, 39: cui nomen Becco fuerat; “id valet gallinacei rostrum,Suet. Vit. 18: “pransus quoque atque potus diversum valent quam indicant,Quint. 1, 4, 29 et saep.: “et intellego et sentio et video saepe idem valent quod scio,id. 10, 1, 13: “duo quae idem significant ac tantumdem valent,id. 1, 5, 4.—Hence, vălens , entis, P. a., strong, stout, vigorous, powerful (class.).
A. Lit.
1. In gen.: nil moro discipulos mihi esse plenos sanguinis; “valens adflictet me,Plaut. Bacch. 2, 1, 44: “virgatores,id. As. 3, 2, 19: “robusti et valentes et audaces satellites,Cic. Agr. 2, 31, 84: “cum homo imbecillus a valentissimā bestiā laniatur,id. Fam. 7, 1, 3: “valentissimi lictores,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 54, § 142: “homines,id. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Suet. Aug. 35: “hic membris et mole valens,Verg. A. 5, 431: “membris valens,Ov. M. 9, 108: “corpore esse vegeto et valenti,Gell. 3, 1, 11: “nervi musculique,Cels. 8, 20: “trunci,Verg. G. 2, 426: scire oportet, omnia legumina generis valentissimi esse: valentissimum voco, in quo plurimum alimenti est ... Ex leguminibus valentior faba quam pisum, etc., strongest, i. e. most nutritire, Cels. 2, 18: “tunicae,stout, thick, Ov. A. A. 3, 109: providendum ne infirmiores (apes) a valentioribus opprimantur, Varr. R. R. 3, 16, 35.—
2. In partic.
2. Trop., of speech, forcibly, energetically: “non diu dicebat sed valenter,Sen. Contr. 3, 22 med.: “si verba numeres, breviter et abscise: si sensum aestimes, copiose et valenter,Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 6.
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