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bĕnignus , a, um, adj. as if benigenus, from bonus genus, anal. with malignus and privignus,
I.of a good kind or nature, beneficent, kind.
I. Of feeling or deportment towards others, kind, good, friendly, pleasing, favorable, benignant: “nam generi lenonio, Numquam ullus deus tam benignus fuit qui fuerit propitius,Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 34: “benignus et lepidus et comis,Ter. Hec. 5, 3, 39: “boni et benigni,id. Phorm. 5, 2, 2: “comes, benigni, faciles, suaves homines esse dicuntur,Cic. Balb. 16, 36: “Apelles in aemulis benignus,Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 88; “id. praef. § 21: divi,Hor. C. 4, 2, 52: “numen,id. ib. 4, 4, 74; cf. Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 34 al.
B. Of things, friendly, favorable, pleasant, mild: “animus,Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 22: “oratio,Cic. Off. 2, 14, 48: “sociorum comitas vultusque benigni,Liv. 9, 6, 8; 30, 14, 3; Hor. Ep. 1, 11, 20: “verba,Prop. 1, 10, 24: “benigniora verba,Liv. 21, 19, 11.—In the jurists, interpretatio, a mild, favorable interpretation (opp. dura, which follows the strictness of the letter; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31 sq.), Dig. 39, 5, 16: “semper in dubiis benigniora praeferenda sunt,ib. 50, 17, 56: “benignior sententia,ib. 37, 6, 8.—
C. Poet., = faustus, lucky, propitious, favorable: “dies,Stat. S. 5, 1, 108: “nox,id. Th. 10, 216.—
II. More freq. of action, beneficent, obliging, that gives or imparts freely, liberal, bounteous, etc.: “erga te benignus fui, atque opera mea Haec tibi sunt servata,Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 33; id. Trin. 3, 3, 12; 2, 4, 58: “fortuna ... Nunc mihi, nunc alii benigna,Hor. C. 3, 29, 52: “qui benigniores volunt esse, quam res patitur, peccant,Cic. Off. 1, 14, 44: “qui liberalis benignusque dicitur,id. Leg. 1, 18, 48: “facilius in timore benigni quam in victoriā grati reperiuntur,id. ad Brut. 1, 15, 8.—Poet., with gen.: “vini somnique benignus,a hard drinker and a lover of sleep, Hor. S. 2, 3, 3.—Opp. to bonae frugi = prodigus, prodigal, lavish: “est benignus potius quam bonae frugi,Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 20.—
B. Of things (mostly poet. or in post-Aug. prose; cf. malignus), yielding liberally, abundant, fruitful, fertile, copious, rich: et magnas messes terra benigna daret, Tib 3, 3, 6: “ager,Ov. Am. 1, 10, 56: “tellus,Plin. 18, 1, 1, § 1: “vepres,Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 8: “cornu,id. C. 1, 17, 15: “egens benignae Tantalus semper dapis,id. Epod. 17, 66: “ingenī Benigna vena est,id. C. 2, 18, 10: “praeda,Ov. F. 5, 174: “benigna materia gratias agendi Romanis,Liv. 42, 38, 6: quem (ordinem) persequi longa est magis quam benigna materia, fruitful, or suitable for exhibition, Mel. prooem. § 1; “so Seneca: primus liber .. benigniorem habuit materiem,Sen. Ira, 2, 1, 1: “ipse materiā risūs benignissima,id. Const. 18, 1 (cf. also in Gr. ἄφθονος): “aestivam sermone benigno tendere noctem,Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 11 (sermone multo et liberali et largo, Lamb.): “benignissimum inventum, i. e. beneficentissimum,Plin. 35, 2, 2, § 11. —Hence, adv.: bĕnignē (ante-class. collat. form bĕnignĭter ).
1. In a friendly manner, kindly, benevolently, courteously, benignly: “benigne et amice facere,Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 109: “me benignius Omnes salutant quam salutabant prius,id. Aul. 1, 2, 36: “ecquid ego possiem Blande dicere aut benigne facere,Ter. Ad. 5, 4, 24: “viam monstrare,courteously, politely, Cic. Balb. 16, 36: “salutare,id. Phil. 13, 2, 4: “audire,id. Clu. 3, 8: “polliceri,id. Fam. 4, 13, 3: “servire alicui,Cat. 76, 3: “respondere,Sall. J. 11, 1; Liv. 27, 4, 7: “milites adpellare,Sall. J. 96, 2: “habere,id. ib. 113, 2: “alloqui,Liv. 1, 28, 1: “audire aliquem,id. 1, 9, 4: “excipere aliquem,id. 2, 35, 6; 21, 19, 7; Tac. A. 1, 57: “arma capere,readily, willingly, Liv. 3, 26, 1: “audire,Suet. Aug. 89.—In the ante-class. form benigniter, Titin. ap. Non. p. 510, 13, and Prisc. p 1010 P.—
b. Mildly, indulgently (in jurid. Lat.): “in poenalibus causis benignius interpretandum est,Dig. 50, 17, 155; ib. 44, 7, 1, § 13: “benignissime rescripserunt,ib. 37, 14, 4.—
c. Benigne dicis, or absol. benigne, used in colloquial lang. in thanking one for something, both when it is taken and when it is refused (the latter a courtly formula like the Gr. αἰνῶ σε, ζηλῶ σε, καλῶς, κάλλιστα; cf. recte), you are very kind, I thank you very much, am under great obligation; no, I thank you.
(α). In receiving: As. Peregre cum advenis, cena detur. Di. Benigne dicis, Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 27; Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 62.—
(β). In declining: “frumentum, inquit, me abs te emere oportet. Optime. Modium denario. Benigne ac liberaliter: nam ego ternis HS non possum vendere, etc.,Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 85, § 196: “dic Ad cenam veniat.. Benigne Respondet. Neget ille mihi? etc.,Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 62; id. ib. 1, 7, 16 Schmid.—
b. Benigne facere alicui = bene facere, to do a favor, to show favor, Ter. Ad. 5, 4, 24 Ruhnk.; Cat. 73, 3: “qui plurimis in istā provinciā benigne fecisti,Cic. Fam. 13, 67, 1; id. Off. 1, 14, 42; id. Inv. 1, 55, 109; Liv. 4, 14, 5; 28, 39, 18; Gell. 17, 5, 10 al.; cf. Rutil. Lup. p. 127 Ruhnk. (175 Frotscher).
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hide References (48 total)
  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (48):
    • Cicero, Letters to his Friends, 13.67.1
    • Cicero, Letters to his Friends, 4.13.3
    • Cicero, Philippics, 13.2.4
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.3.196
    • Cicero, For Aulus Cluentius, 3.8
    • Cicero, For Cornelius Balbus, 16.36
    • Plautus, Cistellaria, 1.1
    • Plautus, Curculio, 4.2
    • Plautus, Persa, 4.4
    • Plautus, Rudens, 5.3
    • Plautus, Trinummus, 3.3
    • Suetonius, Divus Augustus, 89
    • Horace, Satires, 2.3.3
    • Tacitus, Annales, 1.57
    • Plautus, Aulularia, 1.2
    • Plautus, Aulularia, 4.4
    • Plautus, Truculentus, 1.1
    • Plautus, Truculentus, 1.2
    • Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 18.1
    • Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 35.11
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 30, 14.3
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 42, 38
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 3, 26.1
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 2, 35.6
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 9, 31
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 9, 32
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 9, 6
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 27, 4.7
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 28, 39.18
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 1, 28.1
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 1, 9.4
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 21, 19
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 4, 14.5
    • Seneca, de Ira, 2.1.1
    • Cicero, De Legibus, 1.18
    • Cicero, De Officiis, 1.10
    • Cicero, De Officiis, 1.14
    • Cicero, De Officiis, 2.14
    • Cicero, De Officiis, 2.15
    • Gellius, Noctes Atticae, 17.5.10
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 11
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 113
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 68
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 96
    • Statius, Thebias, 10
    • Statius, Silvae, 5.1
    • Ovid, Fasti, 5
    • Cicero, De Inventione, 1.55
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