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co-gnosco , gnōvi, gnĭtum, 3 (
I.tempp. perff. contr. cognosti, Ter. And. 3, 4, 7: “cognostis,id. Hec. prol. 8: “cognoram,Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 143; Cat. 66, 26: “cognoro,Cic. Att. 7, 20, 2; id. Fam. 2, 11, 2 fin.: cognorim, Cael. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 9, A, 1: “cognoris,Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 35; Lucr. 6, 534: “cognorit,Ter. Eun. 5, 4, 11: “cognosses,Cic. Fl. 21, 51; Cat. 91, 3: “cognossent,Nep. Lys. 4 fin.: “cognosse,Lucr. 1, 331; Cat. 90, 3; Ov. M. 15, 4 al.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, 532; 2, 535), v. a. nosco.
I. To become thoroughly acquainted with (by the senses or mentally), to learn by inquiring, to examine, investigate, perceive, see, understand, learn; and, in tempp. perff. (cf. nosco) to know (very freq. in all periods and species of composition); constr. with acc., with acc. and inf., or a rel.-clause as object, and with ex, ab, the abl. alone, or per, with the source, etc., of the information, and with de.
A. By the senses: “credit enim sensus ignem cognoscere vere,Lucr. 1, 697; 6, 194; Enn. Ann. ap. Pers. 6, 9 (v. 16 Vahl.); cf.: “doctas cognoscere Athenas,Prop. 1, 6, 13; so, “regiones,Caes. B. G. 3, 7: “domos atque villas,Sall. C. 12, 3: “Elysios campos, etc.,Tib. 3, 5, 23: “totum amnem,Verg. A. 9, 245: “sepulcra,Suet. Calig. 3: “Aegyptum proficisci cognoscendae antiquitatis,Tac. A. 2, 59; cf. Nep. Att. 18, 1: “infantem,Suet. Calig. 13: “si quid dignum cognitu,worth seeing, Suet. Aug. 43 rem, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 275, 22: “ab iis Caesar haec dicta cognovit, qui sermoni interfuerunt,Caes. B. C 3, 18 fin.: “si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros.. Incipiam, Verg A. 2, 10: verum, quod institui dicere, miserias cognoscite sociorum,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 27, § 65: “aliquid et litteris et nuntiis cognoscere,id. Fam. 1, 5, 1; 14, 5, 1; 14, 6 init.: “iter ex perfugis,Sall. C. 57, 3; id. J. 112, 1 al: “per exploratores cognovit,Caes. B. G. 1, 22; 5, 49; 2, 11; “7, 16: deditio per nuntios cognita,Sall. H. Fragm. 2, 22 Gerl.: “de Marcelli salute, Cic Fam. 4, 4, 3: de Bruto,id. Att. 5, 21, 10; “Sall J. 73, 1: his (quibus) rebus cognitis very freq. in the historians,Caes. B G. 1, 19, 1, 33; 2, 17; 4, 30 et saep., so in abl. absol. cognito, vivere Ptolemaeum, Liv. 33, 41, 5, so id. 37, 13, 5; 44, 28, 4 al.; v. Zumpt, Gram. § 647.—
b. Like the Engl. to know, the Heb. (v. Gesen. Lex. s. h. v 3), and the Gr. γιγνώσκω (v. Lidd. and Scott, under the word, III.), euphem of sexual intercourse, Ov. H. 6, 133 aliquam adulterio, Just 5, 2, 5, 22, 1, 13: cognita, Cat 61, 147; Tac. H 4, 44.—
B. Mentally, to become acquainted with, learn, recognize, know: “nihil certum sciri, nihil plane cognosci et percipi possit,Cic. de Or 1, 51, 222, Lucr 2, 840; “quod Di vitiaci fratris summum in populum Romanum studium cognoverat,Caes. B. G 1, 19; cf. Sall. C. 51, 16 quem tu, cum ephebum Temni cognosses, Cic. Fl. 21, 51 et saep.: id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse, knew by their weapons and insignia (diff. from ex and ab aliquo, to learn from any one, v ab), Caes. B G. 1, 22; Ov. P 2, 10, 1; Phaedr. 4, 21, 22.—With acc. and inf: nunc animam quoque ut in membris cognoscere possis esse, Lucr 3, 117; cf. Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25: cum paucitatem mililum ex castrorum exiguitate cognosceret, Caes B G. 4, 30: aetatem eorum ex dentibus, Varr R. R. 2, 8 fin.: “sed Metello jam antea experimentis cognitum erat, genus Numidarum infidum... esse,Sall. J 46, 3 al.—With acc. and part.: “aliter ac sperarat rempublicam se habentem,Nep. Ham. 2, 1.—With rel.- clause: “tandem cognosti qui siem, Ter And. 3, 4, 7: id socordiāne an casu acciderit, parum cognovi,Sall. J. 79, 5 al.
II. To recognize that which is already known, acknowledge, identify (rare for agnosco): vereor, ne me quoque, cum domum ab Ilio cessim revertero, Praeter canem cognoscat nemo, Varr. ap. Non. p. 276, 9: “eum haec cognovit Myrrhina,Ter. Hec. 5, 3, 32: “primum ostendimus Cethego signum: cognovit,Cic. Cat. 3, 5, 10; cf.: “sigilla, ova,id. Ac. 2, 26, 86; Lucr. 2, 349: “pecus exceptum est, quod intra dies XXX. domini cognovissent,to identify, Liv. 24, 16, 5; cf.: “ut suum quisque per triduum cognitum abduceret,id. 3, 10, 1; Ov. F. 2, 185: “video et cognosco signum,Plaut. Ps. 4, 2, 45: “faciem suam,Ov. A. A. 3, 508: “cognito regis corpore,Just. 2, 6, 20: “mores,Ov. P. 3, 2, 105.—So esp., to identify a person before a tribunal: “cum eum Syracusis amplius centum cives Romani cognoscerent,Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 5, § 14; 2, 5, 28, § 72.—
III. With the access. idea of individual exertion (cf. Gr. γιγνώσκω), to seek or strive to know something, to inquire into, to investigate, examine (so freq. only as a jurid. and milit. t. t.): “accipe, cognosce signum,Plaut. Ps. 4, 2, 31.
A. Jurid. t. t., to examine a case in law, to investigate judicially (cf. cognitio): “Verres adesse jubebat, Verres cognoscebat, Verres judicabat,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; cf. Quint. 4, 2, 21; Dig. 13, 4, 4 al.—So absol.: “si judicas, cognosce,Sen. Med. 194.—With acc.: “causam,Quint. 4, 1, 3; cf. id. 11, 1, 77 Spald. N. cr.: “causas,Cic. Off. 2, 23, 82; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 48, § 118. COGNITIONES, Inscr. Orell. 3042.—With de: “de agro Campano,Cic. Phil. 5, 19, 53: “de Caesaris actis,id. Att. 16, 16 B, 8: “de hereditate,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 7, § 19: “hac de re,id. ib. 2, 1, 10, § 27; cf. Quint. 6, 3, 85; 7, 4, 35; 8, 3, 62 al.; Suet. Aug. 55; 93; id. Tib. 33; id. Calig. 38 al.: “super aliquā re,Dig. 23, 2, 13: “familiae herciscundae, i. e. ex actione familiae herciscundae,ib. 28, 5, 35; cf. ib. 27, 2, 2.—
2. Transf., of critics and the criticising public: “cognoscere atque ignoscere, Quae veteres factitarunt, si faciunt novi,Ter. Eun. prol. 42; cf. id. Hec. prol. 3 and 8.—And of private persons in gen.: “et cognoscendi et ignoscendi dabitur peccati locus,Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 6.—
B. Milit. t. t., to reconnoitre, to act the part of a scout: “qualis esset natura montis et qualis in circuitu ascensus, qui cognoscerent, misit,Caes. B. G. 1, 21 al— Also merely to inquire into, examine: “numerum tuorum militum reliquiasque,Cic. Pis. 37, 91 (al. recognoscere).—Hence, *
1. cognoscens , entis, P. a., acquainted with: “cognoscens sui,Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25. —Subst. in jurid. lang., one who investigates judicially Inscr Orell 3151; 3185.—* Adv.: cognoscenter , with knowledge, distinctly: “ut cognoscenter te videam,Tert. adv. Marc. 4, 22.—
2. cognĭtus , a, um, P. a., known, acknowledged, approved. res penitus perspectae planeque cognitae, Cic. de Or. 1, 23, 108, cf. id. ib 1, 20, 92; id. Fam. 1, 7, 2. dierum ratio pervulgata et cognita, id. Mur 11, 25: “homo virtute cognitā et spectatā fide,id. Caecin. 36, 104.—With dat.: “mihi Galba, Otho, Vitellius nec beneficio nec injuriā cogniti,Tac. H. 1, 1, so Plin. 12, 21, 45, § 99.—Comp.: “cognitiora, Ov Tr. 4, 6, 28. cognitius,id. M. 14, 15.—Sup.: “cognitissima,Cat. 4, 14.
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hide References (61 total)
  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (61):
    • Cicero, Letters to his Friends, 1.7.2
    • Cicero, Letters to his Friends, 2.11.2
    • Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 10.9
    • Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 16.16
    • Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 5.21.10
    • Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 7.20.2
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.21
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.22
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 3.7
    • null, 5.19.53
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.2.65
    • Cicero, For Aulus Caecina, 36.104
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.14
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.2.118
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.2.19
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.2.26
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 3.5.10
    • Cicero, Against Piso, 37.91
    • Ovid, Metamorphoses, 14.15
    • Plautus, Pseudolus, 4.2
    • Vergil, Aeneid, 9.245
    • Suetonius, Divus Augustus, 55
    • Suetonius, Caligula, 13
    • Suetonius, Caligula, 3
    • Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.4
    • Tacitus, Annales, 2.59
    • Tacitus, Historiae, 1.1
    • Cicero, On Oratory, 1.23
    • Cicero, On Oratory, 1.31
    • Sallust, Catilinae Coniuratio, 12
    • Sallust, Catilinae Coniuratio, 51
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 112
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 79
    • Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, 1.331
    • Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, 1.697
    • Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, 2.349
    • Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, 6.194
    • Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, 6.534
    • Suetonius, Divus Augustus, 43
    • Suetonius, Caligula, 38
    • Suetonius, Tiberius, 33
    • Cornelius Nepos, Atticus, 18.1
    • Cornelius Nepos, Hamilcar, 2.1
    • Cornelius Nepos, Lysander, 4
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 24, 16
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 37, 13.5
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 33, 41.5
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 3, 10.1
    • Seneca, Medea, 194
    • Cicero, De Officiis, 2.23
    • Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 4, 2.21
    • Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 6, 3.85
    • Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 4, 1.3
    • Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 8, 3.62
    • Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 7, 4.35
    • Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 11, 1.77
    • Sallust, Catilinae Coniuratio, 57
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 46
    • Ovid, Ex Ponto, 3.2
    • Persius, Saturae, 6
    • Ovid, Fasti, 2
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