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Marcus, the orator, was born B.C. 143; was quaestor in 113; praetor in 104, when he fought against the pirates in Cilicia; consul in 99; and censor in 97. He belonged to Sulla 's party, and was put to death by Marius and Cinna , when they entered Rome, in 87; his head was cut off and placed on the Rostra. Cicero mentions him and L. Crassus as the most distinguished orators of their age, and he is introduced as one of the speakers in Cicero's De Oratore.


Marcus, surnamed Creticus, elder son of the orator, and father of the triumvir, was praetor in B.C. 75, and received the command of the fleet and all the coasts of the Mediterranean, in order to clear the sea of pirates; but he did not succeed in his object, and used his power to plunder the provinces. He died shortly afterwards in Crete, and was called Creticus in derision.


Gaius, younger son of the orator and uncle of the triumvir, was expelled from the Senate in B.C. 70, and was the colleague of Cicero in the praetorship (65 B.C.) and consulship (63 B.C.). He was one of Catiline's conspirators, but deserted the latter on Cicero's promising him the province of Macedonia. He had to lead an army against Catiline, but, unwilling to fight against his former friend, he gave the command on the day of battle to his legate, M. Petreius. At the conclusion of the war Antony went into his province, which he plundered shamefully; and on his return to Rome in 59 was accused both of taking part in Catiline's conspiracy and of extortion in his province. He was defended by Cicero, but was condemned, and retired to the island of Cephallenia. He was subsequently recalled, probably by Caesar, and was in Rome at the beginning of the year 44.


Marcus, the Triumvir, was the son of Antonius Creticus and Iulia, the sister of Iulius Caesar. He was born about B.C. 83. His father died while he was still young, and he was brought up by Lentulus, who married his mother Iulia, and who was put to death by Cicero in 63 as one of Catiline's conspirators: hence Antony became a personal enemy of Cicero. Antony indulged in his earliest youth in every kind of dissipation, and his affairs soon became deeply involved. In 58, he went to Syria, where he served with distinction under Gabinius. In 54, he went to Caesar in Gaul, and by the influence of the latter was elected quaestor (B.C. 52). He now became one of the most active partisans of Caesar. He was tribune of the plebs in 49, and in January fled to Caesar's camp in Cisalpine Gaul, after putting his veto upon the decree of the Senate which deprived Caesar of his command. In 48, Antony was present at the battle of Pharsalia, where he commanded the left wing. In 44, he was consul with Caesar, when he offered him the kingly diadem at the festival of the Lupercalia. After Caesar's murder, on the 15th of March, Antony endeavoured to succeed to his power. He pronounced the speech over Caesar's body, and read his will to the people; and he also obtained the papers and private property of Caesar. But he found a new and unexpected rival in young Octavianus, the adopted son and great-nephew of the dictator, who at first joined the Senate in order to crush Antony. (See Augustus.) Towards the end of the year Antony proceeded to Cisalpine Gaul, which had been previously granted him by the Senate; but Dec. Brutus refused to surrender the province to Antony, and threw himself into Mutina, where he was besieged by Antony. The Senate approved of the conduct of Brutus, declared Antony a public enemy, and intrusted the conduct of the war against him to Octavianus. Antony was defeated at the battle of Mutina, in April, 43, and was obliged to cross the Alps. Both the consuls, however, had fallen, and the senators now began to show their jealousy of Octavianus. Meantime Antony was joined by Lepidus with a powerful army; Octavianus became

Marcus Antonius.

reconciled to him; and it was agreed that the government of the state should be vested in Antony, Octavianus, and Lepidus, under the title of Triumviri Republicae Constituendae, for the next five years. The mutual enemies of each were proscribed, and, in the numerous executions that followed, Cicero, who had attacked Antony in his Philippic Orations, fell a victim to his malice. In 42, Antony and Octavianus crushed the republican party by the battle of Philippi, in which Brutus and Cassius fell. Antony then went to Asia, which he had received as his share of the Roman world. In Cilicia he met with Cleopatra , and followed her to Egypt, a captive to her charms. In 41, Fulvia, the wife of Antony, and his brother, L. Antonius, made war upon Octavianus in Italy. Antony prepared to support his relatives, but the war was brought to a close at the beginning of 40, before Antony could reach Italy. The opportune death of Fulvia facilitated the reconciliation of Antony and Octavianus, which was cemented by the marriage of Antony to Octavia, the sister of Octavianus. Antony remained in Italy till 39, when the triumvirs concluded a peace with Pompey, and he afterwards went to his provinces in the East. In this year and the following, Ventidius, the lieutenant of Antony, defeated the Parthians. In 37, Antony crossed over to Italy, when the triumvirate was renewed for five years. He then returned to the East, and shortly afterwards

Coin of Antony, struck at

Antioch. sent Octavia back to her brother and surrendered himself entirely to the charms of Cleopatra. In 36, he invaded Parthia, but lost a great number of his troops, and was obliged to retreat. He was more successful in his invasion of Armenia in 34, for he obtained possession of the person of Artavasdes, the Armenian king, and carried him to Alexandria. Antony now laid aside entirely the character of a Roman citizen, and assumed the pomp and ceremony of an Eastern despot. His conduct, and the unbounded influence which Cleopatra had acquired over him, alienated many of his friends and supporters; and Octavianus saw that the time had now come for crushing his rival.

Coin of Antony, with Worship of Bacchus and Venus.

The contest was decided by the memorable seafight off Actium, September 2d, B.C. 31, in which Antony's fleet was completely defeated. Accompanied by Cleopatra , he fled to Alexandria, where he put an end to his own life in the following year (30 B.C.), when Octavianus appeared before the city.


Gaius, brother of the triumvir, was praetor in Macedonia in B.C. 44, fell into the hands of M. Brutus in 43, and was put to death by Brutus in 42, to revenge the murder of Cicero.


Lucius, youngest brother of the triumvir, was consul in B.C. 41, when he engaged in war against Octavianus at the instigation of Fulvia, his brother's wife. He threw himself into the town of Perusia, which he was obliged to surrender in the following year. His life was spared, and he was afterwards appointed by Octavianus to the command of Iberia.


Marcus, elder son of the triumvir by Fulvia, was executed by order of Octavianus, after the death of his father in B.C. 30.


Iulus, younger son of the triumvir by Fulvia, was brought up by his step-mother Octavia at Rome, and received great marks of favour from Augustus. He was consul in B.C. 10, but was put to death in the year 2, in consequence of his adulterous intercourse with Iulia, the daughter of Augustus.

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