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A Greek poet of the New Comedy, born at Carystus, between B.C. 300 and 260. He wrote forty-seven plays, and won five victories. From him Terence borrowed the plots of his Phormio and Hecyra.


A Greek grammarian and historian of Athens, about B.C. 140, a pupil of Aristarchus and the Stoic Panaetius. He was a most prolific writer on grammar, mythology, geography, and history. Some of his works were written in iambic senarii—e. g. a geography, and the Chronica, a condensed enumeration of the most important data in history and literature from the fall of Troy, which he places in B.C. 1183, down to his own time—undoubtedly the most important of ancient works on the subject. Besides fragments, we have under his name a book entitled Bibliotheca, a great storehouse of mythological material from the oldest theogonies down to Theseus, and, with all its faults of arrangement and treatment, a valuable aid to our knowledge of Greek mythology. Yet there are grounds for doubting whether it is from his hand at all, or whether it is even an extract from his great work, On the Gods, in twenty-four books. A good edition is Hercher's (Berlin, 1874).


A Greek painter of Athens, about B.C. 420, the first who graduated light and shade in his pictures, whence he received the name of Sciagrăphus (shadowpainter). This invention entitled him to be regarded as the founder of a new style, which aimed at producing illusion by pictorial means, and which was carried on further by his younger contemporary Zeuxis (Pliny , Pliny H. N. xxxv. 60).


A Greek architect of Damascus, who lived for a time at Rome, where, among other things, he built Trajan's Forum and Trajan's Column. He was first banished and then put to death under Hadrian, A.D. 129, having incurred that emperor's anger by the freedom of his criticisms. We have a work by him on engines of war, addressed to Hadrian.

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