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A country in central Italy, was a narrow strip of land along the coast of the Adriatic, and was bounded on the north by Umbria, on the west by Umbria and the territory of the Sabines, and on the south by the territory of the Marsi and Vestini. It is said to have derived its name from the bird picus, which directed the Sabine immigrants into the land (Pliny , Pliny H. N. iii. 110). They were conquered by the Romans in B.C. 268, when a portion of them was transplanted to the coast of the Sinus Paestanus, where they founded the town of Picentia (Flor. i. 19; Eutrop. ii. 16). (See Picentia.) Picenum formed the fifth region in the division of Italy by Augustus. See Italia.

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