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Πομπήϊοι). A city in Campania, founded towards the sixth century B.C. by an Italic tribe, which left its native haunts in the Apennines to seek a happier home on the shores of Campania. They settled on a hill of volcanic origin between the river Sarno and the sea, and divided the land so that each paterfamilias should have a share of two iugera (57,600 square feet). The number of settlers is estimated by Fiorelli at 150 families. The city was inaugurated with the same political and religious rites which had been observed in the foundation of Rome; it was crossed by two main streets, the cardo running from south to north, the decumanus running from east to west. Two lanes parallel, one with the cardo, one with the decumanus, were added in course of time, by means of which the city was finally divided into nine quarters or wards (regiones), and each ward subdivided into blocks (insulae). The same division is maintained to-day. Thus the house of Lucius Popidius Secundus is marked house n. v., fourth insula, first region; that of Marius Epidius Rufus is n. xx., first insula, ninth region, and so on.

Towards B.C. 424 the city fell a prey to the Samnites. The new-comers, under the influence of Hellenic art and civilization, transformed the smoky huts of the conquered tribesmen into gay and commodious dwellings, levelled and paved the streets, and raised public and sacred edifices in the choicest forms of Doric architecture.

Towards the end of the Marsic War the Pompeians were defeated in the plains of Nola; their city and their territory were given up to a colony of veterans; the name was changed into that of Colonia Veneria Cornelia Pompeii. Under the benevolent rule of Augustus, Pompeii became the Newport of ancient Rome, and continued to enjoy the favour of the rich and pleasure-seeking patricians for more than a century. In A.D. 63, on

Specimen of House Decorations of the Time of Augustus. The Mosaic-work is lined with Cornices of Shells, Pumice-stones, and Enamels. (From house, reg. vii. ins. ii. n. 38.)

February 5th, the felix Campania was shaken by an earthquake. Pompeii, Nuceria, Herculaneum, and Naples were seriously damaged; a flock of six hundred sheep disappeared in a fissure of the earth; statues fell from their pedestals; public edifices collapsed, and when the work of repairing the damages was nearly completed, and the recollections of the earthquake had almost died away, another by far more horrible catastrophe took place by which Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabia, as living cities, were wiped forever from the face of the earth.

The account of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79 is given by Pliny the Younger in two well-known letters (vi. 16 and 20) to Tacitus. Other particulars are supplied by Dio Cassius, lxvi. 21; Suetonius, Titus, viii; Marcus Aurelius, iv. 48; and Tertullian, Apol. 40.The history of those eventful days has therefore been reconstructed in all the leading details. (See Dyer's chapter “History of Vesuvius,” pp. 10-29.) Still there are a great many others, revealed by late excavations, which are less known to the general public. Thus, for instance, the year in which the eruption took place is well known (A.D. 79); not so the month and the day, as the text of Pliny which mentions them is undoubtedly corrupt. The Neapolitan scholars have favoured autumn (November) rather than summer (August), alleging the discoveries of carpets drawn over the mosaic and marble floors, of braziers placed in exposed corners, of dried figs and grapes, of chestnuts, pine-nuts, and other fruit belonging to the late autumn. On the other hand, it was alleged that in the hundred and fifty houses excavated since 1870, no carpet has been found, only a piece of matting which, however, seems to have been rolled, and not extended on the floor; that the braziers collected both from Pompeii and Herculaneum number scarcely fifty, and that they were used not for warming but for cooking purposes; and lastly that in Southern climates the fruit mentioned above ripens in

The controversy about the precise date of the destruction of Pompeii was settled on October 11th, 1889. While excavating a bed of volcanic ashes, a few steps outside the Porta Stabiana, Signor Ruggero discovered and moulded in plaster two human forms, and that of a trunk of a tree, 3.40 metres long, 0.40 m. in diameter. One of the human casts belonged to a middle-aged man clothed in an overcoat, and lying on his back with drawn-up legs, and arms outstretched, as if trying to protect his chest from the shower of burning ashes by which he was suffocated. The other belongs to an old woman suffocated and buried while attempting to raise herself from the ground by the joint action of hands and knees. By far more important is the cast of the trunk of the tree. The tree was still in its upright position, and must have been twenty-five or thirty feet high. The lower portion, embedded in pumice-stone, does not appear in the mould; the top also has disappeared, because, projecting above the bed of ashes, it must have been burned or cut away. The middle section of the trunk is wonderfully well preserved, together with many leaves and berries. Trunk, leaves, and berries belong undoubtedly to a species of Laurus Nobilis, the fruit of which comes to maturity towards the end of autumn. Prof. Pasquale, in a paper published in the Notizie degli Scavi for 1889, p. 408, proves that the berries discovered on October 11th were perfectly ripe. This Laurus Nobilis, therefore, so ingeniously brought back to life after a lapse of one thousand eight hundred and ten years, settles the controversy concerning the date of the eruption: it took place in the month of November, on November 23, A.D. 79. The catastrophe took the gay and thoughtless people by surprise. All over the town we find evidence of a sudden panic—of a wild rush for life. The writer has often noticed one of these striking examples in a corner of the Forum opposite to the temple of Iupiter. Some masons were engaged in raising an enclosure round a new altar of white marble; the mortar just dashed against the side of the wall was but half spread out; one can see the long sliding stroke of the trowel about to return and obliterate its own track; but it never did return: the hand of the workman was suddenly arrested. The city was not buried entirely, and concealed from the eyes of survivors. The top of the walls of private buildings, the colonnades of public edifices emerged from the

Showing the thickness of the bed of pumice-stones and ashes under which Pompeii was buried, in comparison with the height of buildings. The view is taken from near the Gate to Herculaneum. In the almost perpendicular cutting of volcanic strata back of Hexedra on the left, the various layers of lapilli and ceneri are distinctly visible.

dreary waste, so that it was easy for the survivors to dig out the valuables left behind, and even the statues, marbles, fountains, and bronzes. Later eruptions and the work of nature and man obliterated the last traces of the city; a vague recollection of its site survived in the name of Cività, given to the hill in which it lay buried. The peasants of the Cività have searched for hidden treasure since time immemorial; to save the trouble and expense of an open excavation they tunnelled the bed of lapilli and scoriae, sometimes paying for their imprudence with their life. The skeletons of four men buried alive by the collapse of the cuniculus they were actually digging have been found in a house near the Via dell' Abbondanza. That of Papidius Priscus was searched likewise in the Byzantine period, as proved by the words Dumnos Pertusa scratched above a hole cut through one of its walls to obtain a passage from room to room. The house of L. Caecilius Iucundus was found ransacked; its searching-party had left in one of the holes a lantern of the shape still in use among the Neapolitan peasantry. Yet there are a great many exceptions to the rule. Many wealthy houses have never been explored, and their valuable contents fall occasionally our prey, under the form of a treasure-trove. The writer remembers one which took place in 1881. While Michele Ruggero was excavating half-way between the Porta Stabiana and the coast, a building was found—perhaps a bathing establishment—comprising some twenty rooms gayly decorated with frescoes. Here a band of thirty-six Pompeians took refuge from the fury of the eruption, hoping to take to the boats; the fury of the sea, however, deprived the fugitives of their last chance of salvation. They were all buried alive; their skeletons were found mingled together, as they fell in their last struggle for a breath of air. They were wealthy people. Together with their bones the following objects lay scattered on the floor: five bracelets, six pairs of earrings, two necklaces, one chain, one brooch, seventeen finger-rings, fourteen pieces of gold, two hundred and eight of silver, besides engraved stones, pearls, mirrors, cameos, and copper coins.

In the following year (1882, October) a Lararium, or domestic chapel, was found in a house of the Via dell' Abbondanza in a wonderful state of preservation. On the steps of the altar there were seven statuettes of delicate workmanship. One had been taken away at the moment of the catastrophe by the fugitives, perhaps because it was the best or the most venerated of the group. The six others were found in their proper places. One represents Apollo Citharoedus, the figure being of bronze, the accessories of silver. The second, made of bronze, silver, and ivory, has undergone a curious transformation. At first it was made to represent Mercury, then, with the addition of proper clothing and attributes, it was turned into an Aesculapius. The others represent Mercury, Hercules, and two Lares.

On September 20, 1888, another remarkable discovery of silver-plate and other valuables took place in regio viii. insula ii. house xxiii. It seems that the owners of the house, having made a bundle of their plate, had put it on a stool, waiting, perhaps, for a lull in the shower of burning ashes

View of Pompeii. Island of Revigliano (Petra Herculis). Present line of coast. Ancient line of shore.

in order to remove it to a safer place. However, in the hurry of flight, the bundle was left behind. Besides pieces of the stool on which it was laid, and of the coarse cloth in which it was enveloped, an exquisite silver set for four was found—viz., four large and four small cups and saucers, four egg-cups, one filter, and one jug, weighing nine pounds in all. There was also broken silverware and table-utensils, such as spoons, salt-cellars, etc. More important still was the discovery of three libelli (of wood coated with wax) containing family documents. The deeds, drawn up in A.D. 61, eighteen years before the eruption, belonged to two women—a Decidia Margaris and a Poppaea Noté. In the first deed Poppaea sells to Margaris two young slaves named Simplex and Petrinus. In the second she declares herself a debtor to Margaris for the sum of 1450 sestertii. The third document cannot be interpreted with certainty.

The question whether Pompeii was a sea-port town in the strict sense of the word, or whether it was separated from the sea by a strip of land more or less broad, has been fully discussed by Michele Ruggero in the volume published on the eighteenth centenary of the destruction of the ill-fated town. He declares the story of the discovery of a large three-masted ship (believed to be the flag-ship of Pliny ) near the farm of Messigna, in 1833, to be devoid of foundation, because the would-be masts, seen by the naval engineer Giuseppe Negri, were but trunks of cypresses. Many such trees have been found since 1833: they are planted in quincunx, with the roots in the ancient vegetable soil, and the trunks buried in pumice-stone of the fatal eruption of 79. The average size of one hundred trees, measured by Palmieri and Scacchi, was 1.42 m. in circumference, 0.47 m. in diameter, which is the average size of cypresses thirty-six years old. Following the line of trees and of antique farmhouses, Ruggero was able to trace the line of the sea-coast before the eruption. It starts from Torre Annunziata, bends inland between the Salerno railway and the high-load to Castellamare, and crosses the river Sarno near the “molino di Rosa.” The island of Revigliano, the petra Herculis of the Pompeians, which, before the eruption, was separated from the mainland by a channel 1.550 metres wide, comes now within 420 m. of the shore.

The foregoing view, taken from the north end of the excavations, shows the belt of land created by the shower of ashes and lapilli between the walls of the city and the Petra Herculis.

Of the inhabitants of Pompeii, whom Fiorelli puts down as about 12,000, the greater part fled on foot, on horseback, or in chariots. This is proved by the fact that, although the city contained many stables, two coaches only have been found—one in the court-yard of the house of Papidius Priscus and the other in the stables regio i. insula iv. n. 28. Eight skeletons of horses have been found in the space of eighteen years. In the same period of time 150 human bodies were discovered within the walls, the total number of victims being about 550, less than one in twelve. Many died in their own houses while waiting for the cessation of the shower of ashes; some were crushed by the fall of the roofs; some asphyxiated by the sulphuric vapours or by the fine dust; some starved to death or were buried alive in places from which there was no escape. The skeletons are generally found with a lamp close by, darkness, even in the day-time, having been dense; and they are seldom alone. The Pompeians died in family groups, as shown by the eighteen bodies discovered in the cellar of Diomede's villa; by the twelve in the atrium of house reg. i. ins. ii. n. 28. The fate of these last could not be explained at first, because it seemed so easy for them to have made an escape through the opening of the impluvium. On closer examination it was ascertained that a heavy iron grating had been laid across the impluvium, and that the unfortunate crowd had tried to force it without success.

Bodies crushed by falling ruins or buried in lapilli cannot be cast in plaster, being reduced to a shapeless heap of bones. Those buried in fine dust (hardened by water) are marvellously well preserved, and can be reproduced in plaster to perfection. Nothing is more impressive than the study of the various kinds of agonies suffered by these poor victims at the last moment of the struggle.

The first cast belongs to a man dashed against the pavement by the fall of the wooden ceiling of his shop-room. His fingers are clenched and his elbows drawn, as if trying to lift the weight under which he had fallen.

Cast of man from Pompeii.

The following cast belongs to a workman of the Tanneries (Concia), who was left behind or forgotten by his comrades, as he was lying ill in bed.

Cast of workman from Pompeii.

The poor wretch, whose legs and body appear emaciated, dragged himself as far as the courtyard of the establishment, and, perceiving no chance of deliverance or help, laid himself down to die quietly on the bare floor.

Women also seem to have died with resignation; they are generally found lying on the left side, with the tunica drawn over the face, as a

Cast of woman from Pompeii.

shelter from the ashes. The attitude of most of the men conveys the idea of energetic despair. Far from showing the abandonment of death, they fight to the last against their fate, raising hands and knees in a supreme effort, as shown by the following casts.

Cast of man from Pompeii.

We must not forget the sad fate of a watch-dog, the casting of whose form is the most difficult and delicate yet accomplished in Pompeii, owing to the thinness of the legs and the extraordinary contortion of the body. The faithful animal was forgotten by his ungrateful master, L. Vesonius Prinius. He was left tied to a chain behind the street-door of the house, reg. vi. ins. xiv. n. 20. As the lapilli, pouring in from the door, began to fill the vestibule, the dog tried his best to break the ties. He was overtaken by death while lying on his back with outstretched legs.

Watch-dog. Cast from nature. Discovered at the entrance of the prothyrum of the house of L. Vesonius Prinius.

Among the manifestations of Pompeian art which strike the visitor most forcibly, the wall-decorations in fresco or encaustic painting come first. There are many publications on this subject, one of the earliest being Le Antichità di Ercolano e Pompei, 9 fol. vols. (Napoli, 1755-1792). See also Herculaneum et Pompei: Recueil général de peintures, bronzes, mosaïques, etc., découverts jusqu'à ce jour … gravé du trait sur cuivre par M. Roux aîné, et accompagné d'un texte explicatif par M. L. Barre, 8 large 8vo vols. (Paris, Didot); Raoul Rochette, Choix de peintures de Pompéi, la plupart du sujet historique, etc., with coloured plates, large fol. (Paris, 1844); E. O. Müller, Wandgemälde aus Pompei und Herculanum, mit einem erlaüternden Texte (Berlin, 1844); Wolfgang Helbig, Wandgemälde der vom Vesuv verschütteten Städte Campaniens (Leipzig, 1868). See Dilthey's criticism in the Bullettino dell' Istituto (1869), pp. 147-160. Professor Mau, of the German Institute, has been illustrating year by year the latest finds in this department, both in the Bullettino and the Mittheilungen of the German Institute.

The frescoes of Pompeian houses afford the best illustration that could be desired of ancient mythology, but they offer little of historical interest.

Specimen of Pompeian fresco-paintings (The Wounded Adonis), showing the way they are cared for after their discovery. The cracks of the plaster are first filled with gluten, and then fastened with brass clasps shaped like a T. Sometimes the whole surface of the fresco is washed with a solution of wax.

Their value, as works of art, has been slightly exaggerated; at all events, they cannot bear comparison with the frescoes discovered in Rome, in Livia's Palatine house, in Livia's villa ad Gallinas albas (Prima Porta), in the Roman palace by la Farnesina, in Lamia's gardens (the Nozze Aldobrandine), in Nero's Golden House, etc. Among the few Pompeian frescoes connected with history the one discovered in the autumn of 1882 between the Via dell' Abbondanza, dei Teatri, e de xii. Dei, representing the Judgment of Solomon, took everybody by surprise. Who would ever have conceived that a scene inspired by the Bible should have been discovered on the walls of this purely pagan, dissolute, materialistic town? The picture belongs to the burlesque genre; and although the caricaturist has somewhat exaggerated the conventional deformity of his personages, still every particular of the Biblical account can be recognized. King Solomon, with the sceptre in his hand, sits on a platform between two assessors. He has already told the officer to make two portions of the infant; and while the pretended mother is waiting to receive her half in perfect indifference, the real one falls in a fit of despair.

Many conjectures have been proposed to explain the appearance of such a picture at Pompeii; the most satisfactory seems to be this: The Alexandrian School — after the translation of the Bible by the LXX.—was well acquainted with Hebrew archaeology, history, and tradition. The episode of Solomon's judgment may have become popular in Alexandrian circles. At Pompeii a large contingent of Alexandrians met every summer. No wonder if one of them chose to decorate his house with frescoes derived from legends so popular in his mother country. What renders the conjecture all the more probable is that, in the same apartment, there are other frescoes representing Egyptian scenes, such as crocodile-hunting, the land of the pygmies, etc.

A wine-shop was discovered in 1877, in regio vi. ins. xiv. n. 36, with several tableaux de genre painted on the white plastering of its walls. The first scene on the left represents a young man kissing a woman, who appears dressed in yellow garments with black shoes. She says, nolo! cvm mvrtal—“I don't want to be kissed; go to your Myrtalis.” The second scene represents the same woman talking to Myrtalis. They both point their fingers at a third female, who brings in a great wine-jar and a cup, and says, qvi volt svmat ˙ oceane veni bibe—an invitation to partake of the drink. The third scene represents two gamblers seated, with the chessboard on their knees, on which several latrunculi are disposed in lines of different colours— yellow, white, and black. The one on the left throws the dice, and says, exsi—“I am out.” His partner, pointing to the dice, answers, non tria ˙ dvas est—“You only made two points, not three!” Both fight in the fourth scene. One says, non ita ˙ me tria ˙ ego fvi—“You lie; I made three points; I am out.” The other retorts, orte fellator ˙ ego fvi—“You . . .! I have the game.” At this moment the shop-keeper interferes, and, pushing the rioters outside, says, ite foras rixsatis—“Go out in the street if you want to fight.”

Landscapes are an utter failure; there is no colouring, no perspective, no appreciation of nature, no value of tones. Still, the study of the works of Pompeian landscape-painters is not without interest. Prof. O. Comes has compiled from them a catalogue of flowers, shrubs, ornamental and fruittrees known to the Pompeians. It comprises seventy varieties. See Ruggero's Pompei, pp. 177-250.

The name of Pompeii was never forgotten in the Middle Ages. A chronicler of the ninth century, named Martinus Monachus, speaks of Sikkartol, prince of Benevento, having pitched his tents in a spot qui a Pompeia urbe Campaniae, nunc deserta, nomen accepit (named from Pompeii, a city of Campania, now deserted). Martinus refers not to Pompeii destroyed in A.D. 79, but to a village of the same name mentioned by the Tabula Pentingeriana at the time of Theodosius, which had in its turn been destroyed by later eruptions.

In 1594 Muzio Tuttavilla, Count of Sarno, while boring an underground channel to convey the waters of the Sarno itself to Torre dell' Annunziata, discovered remains of the amphitheatre, of the temple of Isis, of the Forum, of the strada delle Tombe, to which, however, no attention was paid. Two inscriptions, dug up in the heart of the city, contained the name of Pompeii, of one of its prominent citizens (M. Popidius), of one of its prominent goddesses (Venus Physica Pompeiana); they were thrown aside and probably made use of as building materials. Regular investigation began a century and a half later, on April 1, 1748. I say regular, because the search was undertaken by the State; but there was no order, no regularity, no system. Holes were dug at random, more for the sake of official plunder in favour of the Naples museums than for topographical discovery. The merit of having brought Pompeian excavations to their actual efficiency belongs to Giuseppe Fiorelli, who was named superintendent in 1860. To him we are indebted for a thoroughly scientific organization of the work; since to his ingenuity we owe the invention of the casting in plaster the corpses of the Pompeians who lost their lives in that appalling catastrophe. (See Dyer's Pompeii, p. 475; The Quarterly Review, No. 230, p. 382.)

Bibliography.—Works of general interest: Mazois (François), Les Ruines de Pompéi dessinées et mesurées pendant les années 1809-1811, 4 vols. (Paris, 1812-38), containing nearly 200 plates, and embracing the results of excavations from 1757 to 1821; Sir William Gell, Pompeiana, two series, each of two 8vo vols. (London, 1824-30), giving an account of excavations down to the year 1819; T. L. Donaldson, Pompeii, illustrated with picturesque views, engraved by W. B. Cooke, 2 fol. vols. (London, 1827); Breton, Pompeia Décrite et Dessinée, 2d ed. (Paris, 1855); Overbeck, Pompeij in seinen Gebaüden, Alterthümern, und Kunstwerken (Leipzig, 1856; 2d ed. in 2 vols. 1871); Fausto e Felice Niccolini, Le Case ed i Monumenti di Pompei Disegnati e Descritti (Naples, 1864-92); Giuseppe Fiorelli, Pompeianarum Antiquitatum Historia (Naples, 1860), in two 8vo vols., containing the diaries of excavations from their commencement in 1748 to 1860, with the reports printed verbatim in Spanish down to July, 1764, after that date in Italian; id. Giornale degli Scavi di Pompei, begun in 1861; id. Descrizione di Pompei, 4to (Naples, 1875), with a good map; Dyer, Pompeii: its History, Buildings, and Antiquities, 3d ed. (London, 1871), with nearly 300 engravings, maps, and plans; Michele Ruggero, Pompei e la Regione Sotterrata dal Vesuvio nell' Anno LXXIX., a joint work of the directors of the Pompeian excavations, most excellent, and copiously illustrated (Naples, 1879); id. Degli Scavi di Stabia dal MDCCXLIX. al MDCCLXXXII. (Naples, 1881).

Besides these standard works many important accounts have appeared in archaeological journals, signed by Guaranta, Niccolini, Avellino, Minervini, Monnier, Helbig, Mau, Fiorelli, de Petra Sogliano. These contributions cannot be ignored by students wishing to obtain full knowledge of the subject. See Il Real Museo Borbonico, an illustrated serial of Neapolitan antiquities, begun in 1824; the Italian edition numbers fourteen 4to vols.; Memorie della Reale Accademia di Archeologia di Napoli; Annali e Bullettino dell' Istituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica (Rome and Paris, 1829- 1885); Jahrbuch und Mittheilungen des k. deutschen archäologischen Instituts (Römische Abtheilung, 1886-92); Avellino and Minervini, Bullettino Archeologico Napoletano; Giuseppe Fiorelli, Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità (Rome, 1876-92). The first archaeological map of Pompeii was measured and designed by Antonio Bibent in 1827; the best is that of G. Fiorelli, entitled Tabula Coloniae Veneriae Corneliae Pompei. It is divided into 42 sheets, which, put together, form a superficies of 140 square palms, being the 333.3 part of the true area.

Pompeian epigraphy has been admirably illustrated by Mommsen, Zangemeister, Fiorelli, and others. See Theodor Mommsen, Inscriptiones Regni Neapolitani, p. 112 foll.; Raffaele Garrucci, Graffiti di Pompei (Paris, 1856); Giuseppe Fiorelli, Monumenta Epigraphica Pompeiana, ad Fidem Archetyporum Expressa, part first (Oscan inscriptions); Carl Zangemeister, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, vol. iv. Inscriptiones Parietariae (Berlin, 1871); Theodor Mommsen, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, vol. x. pars prior (Berlin, 1883); and the article Graffiti.

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