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ὀϊστός, ἰός, τόξευμα). An arrow. Ancient arrows like those of modern times were feathered and tipped with metal (Scut. Her. 130-134). The point was called ἄρδις (Herod.i. 215). Flint arrow-heads have been found in Italy; and the Aethiopians in the army of Xerxes used

Greek Arrow-heads from Attica.

arrows tipped with a sharp stone (Herod.vii. 69); but Greek arrows were generally pointed with bronze, and this as early as Homer, who uses the epithet χαλκήρης of one ( Il. xiii. 650 Il., 662). The Homeric arrow-head, however, was three-tongued, and had barbs (ὄγκοι, Il. lv. 151). The Romans called barbed arrows hamatae and aduncae; and did not poison the ends (venenatae sagittae), as did the Getae, Scythae, and Mauri. Arrows were used

Ivory Arrow-head. (Schliemann.)

in warfare to carry fire. By this means Xerxes set the Athenian acropolis on fire (Herod.viii. 52), and Caesar used fire-arrows to set fire to Antony's ships (Pollux, i. 37). Archers were called sagittarii by the Romans, but in earlier times arquites. See Arcus.

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