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σκιάδειον) and Umbella. A sunshade or parasol made like our own to open and shut (Aristoph. Eq. 1348). The ribs were called virgae (Ovid, A. A. ii. 209). It was usually carried

Lady with Maid carrying Umbraculum. (From a vase.)

by a female slave, who held it over the head of her mistress. The use of umbrellas was almost confined to women, for it was considered effeminate for men to use any protection against the sun except when travelling. Some luxurious men, however (Athen. xii. p. 534 a), occasionally braved public opinion and used them. In Hellenistic times a large straw hat came into fashion, doubtless as a substitute for the parasol. At Rome they were also taken to the amphitheatre as a protection against the sun. See Paciandi, De Umbellae Gestatione (Rome, 1752); Marquardt, Privatleben, p. 148. For the carrying of the parasol in processions, see Sciadephoria.

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