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Ἀθῆναι). The chief city of Attica. The long southeastern triangle of the northern peninsula of Greece, which terminates in the abrupt promontory of Sunium (mod. Cávo Colónnais), has its most interesting and important division, topographically as well as historically, on the western side, facing the Saronic Gulf. Here, at a point midway between Sunium and the promontory that faces Salamis, the low Cape Zoster terminates the Anhydros range, a lower continuation of Hymettus. The long continuous ridge of Anhydros and Hymettus (1027 metres at its greatest height) extends, in a slightly northeasterly direction, towards the range of Pentelé (Πεντέλη), the ancient Brilessos (Βριλησσός) or Pentelicon (Πεντελικόν sc. ὄρος, Lat. Mons Pentelicus), from which it is separated by the pass through which the modern railway runs southeasterly towards the ancient mines of Laurium, near Sunium. The Pentelicus range (1086.6 metres high) extends northwest and southeast, and forms with Hymettus and Anhydros a well-nigh continuous dividing-wall between the eastern plain of Attica, the Mesogaea (Μεσόγαια), and the middle plain; while the plain of Marathon in the northeast is approachable from the Mesogaea only by a narrow way between Pentelicus and the sea towards Euboea, and from the middle plain by two difficult mountain ways between Pentelicus and Parnes. This last range (1412 metres high) lies to the northwest of Pentelicus and extends nearly east and west. Passable only by way of Decelea (mod. Tatóï) in the east and Phylé in the west, it effectually cuts off Attica from Boeotia. In its furthest extent towards the west, where it continues in the Cithaeron range, it divides the western Attic plain, the Eleusinian, from Boeotia. The middle Attic plain is separated from the Eleusinian by a lower mountain mass, Aegaleos (Αἰγάλεως) or Corydallos (Κορυδαλλός) (467 metres high), which, leaving easy way between itself and Parnes, continues southwest, broken midway by the pass of Daphné, till it terminates in “the rocky brow which looks o'er sea-born Salamis.” Within these natural ramparts lies that which we may call par excellence the Attic plain, a great V-shaped recess open towards the sea. Its more important internal features, which, taken in connection with its enclosed character on the one hand and its free access to the sea on the other, rendered it an ideal theatre for the development of a Greek state, we must now examine in detail.

From the offshoots of Parnes and Pentelicus in the northeast rises the most considerable waterway of the plain—the Cephissus, which afforded in ancient as in modern times a perennial source of irrigation for the fields of the Attic farmer. As it approaches the sea, below the heights of the city, it seems to have been met by another stream from the east—the Ilissus, which, rising from Hymettus, is in modern times, owing to the denudation of its parent mountain, a much more insignificant stream than in ancient times, hardly more than a dry bed in summer. Hence the difficulty of determining its entire course. The Eridanus mentioned by ancient authors seems to have been a stream from the delicious and wholesome fountain of Kaisariané (Καισαριανή, anc. Κυλλοῦ πήρα), southeast of the sources of the Ilissus, into which the stream emptied east of the city.

Between the Cephissus and the Ilissus, about midway of the plain, a short range of hills, formed like the other heights of the plain of bluish-gray limestone and bearing to-day the name Tourkovoún

Plan of Athens.

(Τουρκοβούνι, “Turk Mountain,” anc. perh. Ἀγχεσμός) (339 metres high), terminates at the southwest in the bold separate peak of Lycabettus (277 metres high), from the pyramidal summit of which, crowned by a chapel of St. George, one commands the most splendid view of the Attic plain, the gulf with its islands, and the Peloponnesian mountains beyond. Some 1000 paces to the southwest of this height, too sharp and steep for habitation, rises a double group of hills of about half the height of Lycabettus. The first and highest of these is the famous Acropolis, the citadel of Athens (156 metres high). Under its western brow

View of the Acropolis in 1890. (From a photograph.)

lies the lower rock of the Areopagus (Ἄρειος πάγος, “Mars' Hill”) (115 metres high). From northwest to south of this extends the group of the Museum (Μουσεῖον, “Muses' Hill”), the Pnyx, and the “Nymphs' Hill” (so called from an inscription), separated by depressions. The highest point is at the southeast extremity of the group, in the summit of the Museum (147 metres high), crowned by the monument of the Syrian Antiochus Philopappus. This triple group of hills seems to have been called collectively in ancient times Pnyx (Πνύξ, “conglomeration”).

Lycabettus, the Acropolis, and the Pnyx were manifestly formed by the action of water, which, forcing its way east and west, left the hard bluegray limestone projecting in three great protuberances, “like bones of a wasted body,” as Plato says.

Between four and five English miles southwest of the Acropolis we find as outpost on the sea the rocky peninsula of Acté or Munichia, which, originally an island, like Salamis, was gradually united to the plain by the soil washed from above. North of it lies the secure landlocked harbour of Piraeus (Πειραιεύς); east, the larger open roadstead of Phalerum (Φάληρον), the earlier port of Athens, into which the Cephissus and Ilissus drain, and which is terminated on the southeast by Cape Colias (Κωλιὰς ἄκρα).

If we examine the soil of the plain from the sea inland, we find that the sandy coast is succeeded by a swampy alluvial strip, the Halipedon (Ἁλίπεδον, “salt-plain” or “sea-plain”). This again gives place to the plain proper, which, though “light of soil” and requiring diligent cultivation, is yet the natural home of the olive, and is not ill adapted to the growth of wheat and vegetables. The stony foot-hills above the plain (Φελλεύς) were terraced and utilized for the cultivation of the vine; while the fragrant mountain-plants, particularly of purple Hymettus, furnished pasturage not only for sheep, but for the bees that have made Attic honey proverbial. The fig-tree, too, was made to flourish so well in the plain that Attic figs were as famous as the oil and honey from the same region.

To these resources we must add the abundance of potter's-clay, and the wealth of material for the architect and the sculptor afforded by the quarries of Pentelicus, Hymettus, and Eleusis, as well as by those of the hills of the city and the heights of Piraeus.

In his efforts to wring from the soil its uttermost, the farmer was aided by a climate exceptionally favourable. In the Attic year there are, on the average, not more than thirty-five days on which the sun does not show itself; and though the north winds from snowy Parnes render the winter cold most penetrating, their steady breath by day during the greater part of the year, alternating with the equally steady sea-breeze by night, combined with a wonderful purity and dryness of air, gave to Attica—and still gives to her, though in a less degree—a climate at once physically and mentally exhilarating. Justly, then, might “the children of Erechtheus” be called “blessed of old, and children of the happy gods,” “lightly walking through brightest and clearest air,” where the goddess of all fertility “irrigated the soil from the streams of ever-flowing Cephissus, and breathed over them temperate breezes.”

We turn now to the development of the little city which grew up in the midst of this exceptional environment.

As in the case of other ancient Grecian settlements, so in that of Athens we find an avoidance of immediate proximity to the sea, such as would have been obtained by a settlement on the height of the Piraeus. The natural centre for the development of a town neither remote from the sea nor yet immediately accessible from it—such, too, as to be commanded by a natural asylum in the event of hostile inroads—is afforded, in the case of Athens, by the group of hills below Lycabettus. Not only do we find here a central and isolated position in a plain set apart from the rest of the world by nature, but also, within a narrow compass, arable land with a water-supply, the material for the primitive artisan, and an airy and wholesome position for habitation upon a foundation of native rock, thus leaving the cultivable area unencumbered.

It is not of special moment to us, in tracing the material development of the little community which has done more than any other towards the promotion of civilization, whether we give to the earliest inhabitants any other name than Athenians. The term Pelasgian itself needs interpretation; and, so far as any precise knowledge goes, we might as well regard these early occupants of the “land unsacked” as quite as truly an outgrowth of “the ground itself” as their symbolic cicada. It is evident from the mere consideration of their environment that we must accept the view of Thucydides, that Attica was exceptionally stable in population, and trace, so far as possible, the gradual accretions upon the primitive nucleus, by whatever name we choose to designate it.

The earliest and most permanent traces of human habitation to be found at Athens are the foundations of houses cut in the rock of the group of hills designated by the general name of Pnyx. These are extensive enough to warrant the belief that this region, which in historical times lay waste for the most part, was the seat of a thriving town, according to the conditions of that primitive period. Whether the remarkable rock-cuttings and the semicircular Pelasgic wall upon the hill called par excellence Pnyx be the monuments of a prehistoric worship of the primeval god of the sunny sky of Greece as well as of its stormier phenomena, Zeus Hypsistos, or whether we are to see here, as has been the prevailing fashion, the place of the Athenian popular assembly (that which under the former supposition is the altar becoming under the latter the famous bema, from which the orators “shook th' arsenal and fulmin'd over Greece”), to any one who has been upon the ground the extreme antiquity of these imposing works is at once obvious. To the early period under discussion seem to belong also the rock-hewn chambers, one of which is traditionally known as the “Prison of Socrates”—an impossible designation.

We cannot suppose that the inhabitants of this first rock-city, or Cranaa (Κρανάα), concerned themselves with the sea, if at all, beyond the demands of their daily existence, which would hardly lead them beyond fishery. It was only enterprising accretions from without that could utilize and develop the entire resources of nature.

Further traces of the early city are to be found in the ancient names, which, attached to the several districts in and about the later city, maintained themselves, not only in the mouth of the people, but in public records, through the entire history of Athens. Among the most certainly distinguishable of these primitive divisions (δῆμοι) is that known, as far back as we can trace, as Ceramicus (Κεραμεικός), so called from the potter's-clay which here furnished abundant material for one of the earliest of human industries. This region stretches northward from the rocky brow of the Areopagus. Melité (Μελίτη) seems to have lain to the south of Ceramicus, and to have embraced the Hill of the Nymphs as well as the Areopagus. Collytus (Κολ-

The Theseum.

λυτός) stretched to the northeast of the Acropolis, bordering on the west not only upon Ceramicus, but also upon Melité, as seems proved by a mention of a boundary-stone in Strabo. Diomea (Διόμεια) may be placed next to Collytus, and between the Acropolis and Lycabettus. Ceriadae (Κειριάδαι), within the border of which, just below the precipice of the Nymphs' Hill, lay the depression, formed partly by nature, partly by quarrying, called the Barathrum (Βάραθρον), adjoined Melité on the west; while Coelé (Κοίλη), consonant with its name, occupied the gully between the Hill of the Nymphs and the bed of the Ilissus. The core of these ancient districts is the rock-city in Melité. To the north of Ceramicus, and, apparently, at all times outside the city limits, lay Colonos Hippios, called from its hill (κολωνός).

While the ancient city thus maintained itself in the little inland district just described, those influences were beginning to make themselves felt from the coast which were to govern the destiny of the future state. The Phœnician traders appear to have established their customary trading-posts at an early date not merely on Salamis (which has preserved its Phœnician name), but also on the coast opposite and on the heights of the Piraeus and Phalerum. Ancient rock-cuttings in the citadel of Piraeus seem to attest early settlement there. It was, indeed, such a position as we know, not only from Thucydides, but also from various material remains, to have been most likely to be chosen by these early navigators of the Mediterranean, and mediators between Orient and Occident. To this source, a mixed Oriental coast-settlement in which Phœnicians played the leading part, appears to be due the addition of Aphrodité and Heracles (Astarté and Melkart) to the primitive native worship of Zeus and the Nymphs, “daughters of ægisholding Zeus,” whose cult attached to springs and water-courses. The ritual of these two foreign deities, as carried on in the historical period, certainly points to a very early introduction of their worship. As to the primitive worship of Zeus, reference has already been made to what may, not improbably, be deemed his primeval sanctuary on the Pnyx; concerning a second early seat of his worship, not far removed, we are better informed. Southeast of the Acropolis, above the fountain Callirrhoë and the bed of the Ilissus, was shown in ancient times an opening in the rock into which, according to the legend, the last vestiges of Deucalion's flood had sunk. Here Deucalion was said to have “built the ancient sanctuary of Olympian Zeus,” whose worship remained fixed at this spot through all the subsequent history of the city. Cleft rock and spring are fit emblems of the worship of Zeus and his daughters at this spot by the primeval Cranai.

The gradual influences of the influx into Attica, both overland from the north and oversea from the west, may be traced in the gods added to the Athenian pantheon. The Minyan Artemis, the Pelasgic Hermes, the Thracian Ares who gave his name to the Areopagus, Hephaestus the handicraftsman's god, gradually encroached upon the domain of the older cults; while Poseidon gained a seat at Phalerum, and later disputed, according to the legend, the possession of the land with Athené, the intellectual development of the old Oriental mother-goddess, who retained her guardianship of the olive-tree even after she had resigned her care of the fields to Eleusinian Demeter.

The incursions from the north and from the sea, which gradually brought in these new divinities, forced the growing state of the Cranai to take up a securer position on the rock of the Acropolis, which, falling off precipitously on all sides except the west, readily lent itself to the fortifications which the early inhabitants of Greece knew so well how to build, and which we can understand now that the ruins of Tiryns and Mycenae, as well as the Acropolis itself, have been submitted to careful excavation and study. Here, on the top of the rock, which was levelled and provided with retaining-walls, as well as with a surrounding fortification, was established the ancient Polis (Πόλις, a term long retained as the official designation of the Acropolis), the seat of the worship of Zeus Polieus. Here, on the north side, where we now see the ruins of the later Erechtheum, were the old sanctuary of the local daemon Erechtheus and the palace of the royal race of the Cecropid and Erechtheid kings, the foundations of which, as well as of private dwellings of the same epoch, have been traced. Up to this palace led from the north a stairway, unearthed in the recent excavations, and in the enclosure west of the present Erechtheum was the sacred olive-tree, the gift of Athené, and

Ruins of the Olympeium.

hard by it the tomb of Cecrops, both under the protection of the old local nymph Pandrosos (Cecropium and Pandroseum). Under the northwest brow of the Acropolis, below the “long rocks” (μακραὶ πέτραι), was the grotto of Pan; and still farther to the west, within the modern bastion of Odysseus, a spring called Clepsydra (Κλεψύδρα, “she that hides her water”), popularly supposed to pass underground to Phalerum. This spring was and still is approached from above by a remarkable fortified winding stairway cut in the rock. Under the south face of the Acropolis were a cave and spring, with which the worship of the healer Asclepius came to be associated; and in the southwest spur of the sacred rock, whence Aegeus was said to have flung himself down, Athené was established as goddess of victory (Νίκη), worshipped in an uncouth primitive idol with the sacrifice of a perfect cow, as so beautifully represented on the marble balustrade about the later Ionic temple.

Thus by the sacred olive and the hollow in the rock with its mysterious trident-mark—where the waves could be heard when the south-wind blew— flourished the old priestly and kingly race, hemmed in not only by the wall of the Polis proper, but also, as it seems, by a lower wall enclosing the skirts of the Acropolis, and called from its nine gates Enneapylon (Ἐννεάπυλον), the area within which and below the ramparts of the citadel was known as the Pelargicon (τὸ Πελαργικόν). The main entrance was then, as it has always been perforce, at the west end of the citadel, a fortified way winding up towards the right, the ancient warrior's exposed side, below the bastion of Athené Niké.

The Ionians who immigrated from across the Aegean brought in the Delian Apollo, the god of Ionic colonization and civilization. This new and important factor in the Athenian state established itself south of the Acropolis in what Thucydides regarded as old Athens, in the region called Cydathenaeum (Κυδαθήναιον), extending some 2000 metres around the southeast flank of the Acropolis and up towards Lycabettus. Under the south face of the Acropolis, close to the later Dionysiac Theatre, the northern Dionysus of Eleutherae was established in the Lenaeum, near the sanctuary of the “public” Aphrodité (Ἀφροδίτη πάνδημος). To the south of this seems to have lain the old marketplace, the ἀγορά of the Ionic ἄστυ. Here was established the first town-hall—the Prytaneum or Basileum—by which, under the auspices of Themis, the “sceptre-bearing” kings administered justice. The solemn court of murder, so soon as the taking of human life came to be recognized as a state offence, was established on the Areopagus, in a cleft beneath which the Eumenides (“the gracious”)—as the avengers of blood, the Erinyes, were here called—were solemnly worshipped. The bodies of the executed, as well as purificatory offerings and offscourings, were thrown into the deep recess of the Barathrum. Thus the highest priesthood was associated with the Acropolis, while the king came down to preside in his political function over the Ionic nobility of Cydathenaeum. The Thesean nobles, true to their Ionic instinct, encouraged closer intercourse with the sea, and Cydathenaeum was linked by a high-road to Phalerum, whence they trafficked abroad; whereas the influence of the Tyrian traders seems to have made itself felt upon the Cranaan city of Melité by a way leading up from the Salaminian Strait.

In the meantime the germ of the later city was rapidly maturing in the industrial settlement northwest of the Acropolis in Ceramicus, which seems to have kept pace in its development with the growing opposition of the lower classes to the encroachments and extortions of the Ionic nobility. After the period of ferment followed by the Solonian legislation, at the opening of the sixth century, came the first great period of the Athenian state—the democratic despotism of the Pisistratidae.

The centre of gravity of the city now shifted to the point at which it remained ever afterwards— to the centre of the settlement of the Ceramicus, which rapidly outgrew in importance the effete Cydathenaeum. Here was established the altar of the Twelve Gods, from which, as from the golden milestone of Rome, distances were reckoned; and here, too, was the focus of Athenian πολυπραγμοσύνη. On the Acropolis, Pisistratus probably built the temple of Athené Polias, “the old temple,” on the site between the later Parthenon and Erechtheum, where its plan has lately been made out. From this period, too, we date the institution of the great Panathenaea and the carrying of the sacred ship from the outer Ceramicus around and into the citadel. Thus did Pisistratus add new glory to the cult of his patron goddess. Upon the terrace above Callirrhoë, Pisistratus began a great temple to Olympian Zeus, but did not carry out his ambitious design. He also built in, or led an aqueduct from, Callirrhoë, which thus became Enneacrunos (Ἐννεάκρουνος, “the fountain with nine pipes”), and long continued to be, as it had been, the main water supply of the town. The encouragement, if not the introduction, of the Dionysiac worship, which bore such abundant fruit in the succeeding century, seems also to have been an object of especial care to Pisistratus.

Close upon the downfall of the Pisistratidean tyrannis and the struggles of the Clisthenean reform came the Persian wars and the sack of the Acropolis by the barbarians. The remains of the ruined shrines of the pre-Persian period, with curious painted pediments of soft stone, and the statues of Parian marble, executed by artists under the patronage of the Pisistratidae, are among the most precious treasures brought to light by the excavation of the Acropolis.

The wide-reaching schemes of naval empire which sprang from the fertile brain of Themistocles, who fostered the growth of the Athenian navy and first saw the strategic importance of the Piraeus, were destined never to be fully realized. Before the Persian wars, Themistocles had caused the Piraeus to be fully fortified and made a strong naval station, invested with heavy fortress-walls about the citadel of Munichia, and with its harbours (Cantharos, the largest, Munichia, and Zea) narrowed and easily closed. After the devastation of the city, he whose merit it was that he “fastened the city to the Piraeus, the land to the sea,” would fain have made the Piraeus the centre of the new city-development—impregnable by land and sea. But the machinations of the Peloponnesians necessitated the hurried fortification of the old site with an effective wall, and thus enabled the conservative party of Aristides and Cimon to carry out their design of maintaining the “wheel-shaped” city about the Acropolis, with a separate porttown and naval station at the Piraeus.

The Themistoclean wall, the successor of older fortifications, passed, as well as can be made out, over the Pnyx hill from the Barathrum to the peak of the Museum, skirted the Ilissus, which lay like a moat without it to the south, curved southeast of the Acropolis, coming around towards the northeast, so as to avoid the foot of Lycabettus, and finally passed from east to west across the plain, taking in the little water-courses from Lycabettus, and finally bending about to the point from which we started. It included Collytus and Diomea, cut Melité in twain, formed an “inner” and an “outer” Ceramicus, and excluded Coelé. The dimensions of the space thus enclosed were about 2000 metres east and west by 1500 metres north and south, the Acropolis lying some 500 metres nearer the south side. Of the gates, we note two in Melité—the Melitid Gate (Μελιτίδες πύλαι) and the “Gate of the Horsemen” (Ἱππάδες πύλαι); then the gate on the south leading to Phalerum (Ἰτωνίαι πύλαι); the Gate of Diochares (Διοχάρους πύλαι) and the Diomean Gate (Διομῂς πύλη) in the east; the Acharnian Gate (Ἀχαρνικὴ πύλη) in the north; and the Dipylon (Δίπυλον), the most important, between the inner and outer Ceramici, where considerable remains of the ancient foundations are still to be seen. South of the last was the Piraic Gate (Πειραϊκὴ πύλη).

To unite the city thus fortified with the Piraeus, the Long Walls were begun, about B.C. 460—a northern, run from the Hill of the Nymphs to Munichia, and a southern, connecting the city with Phalerum. Between these, under Pericles, a second Piraic Wall was built, parallel to the northern, completing the system and linking city and port by a long double fortification—the σκέλη, or “legs.”

Without and near the gates, particularly the Dipylon, the dead were interred; and public funerals were solemnized over the ashes of military heroes in the outer Ceramicus. Beautiful remains of the tombs of the period succeeding the Periclean, but bearing abundant traces of the Phidian art, have been fortunately preserved to us near the Dipylon, and form one of the most striking monuments of the ancient city.

To the Cimonian period seems to belong the imposing temple, the best preserved of all Greek buildings of classical times, on the hill overlooking the Ceramicus from the west—the so-called Theseum, not improbably to be named the Heracleum.

On the Acropolis, in connection with a new and extensive plan of walling, levelling, and enlargement of area, preparations seem to have been made by Cimon for an imposing new temple on the site now occupied by the Parthenon. Here not only was the irregular edge of the precipice raised and reinforced by a high wall outside the Pelasgian rampart supporting a deep inner grading, but a heavy foundation was built up from the bed-rock as support for a great temple structure, destined not to be completed according to the original design. On the north side, also, the plateau of the Acropolis was built up and walled, drums of columns and portions of architraves being freely used in the construction of the wall, and architectural fragments, inscribed marble tablets, and even statues employed as grading material. The bastion of Niké was also newly fortified. Though the nature of Cimon's whole undertaking was decorative rather than strategic, it might yet be truly said that the Acropolis was walled by the Pelasgians and Cimon.

Pericles, having at his disposal the treasures of the Attic League, which were transferred to Athens (B.C. 454) and apparently kept in the Opisthodomos—as the “ancient” Pisistratidean temple of the Polias, commonly called from its length the Hecatompedon (Ἑκατόμπεδον), and apparently rebuilt, at least in part, on its original site, was henceforth termed—reared upon Cimon's foundation the new and magnificent Doric Parthenon (dedicated B.C. 438). The architecture was intrusted to Ictinus and the sculpture to Phidias, whose chryselephantine statue of the Parthenos adorned the room to which alone the term Parthenon (“the virgin's chamber”) strictly applied. The Propylaea (q. v.), a massive ornamental entrance to the Acropolis, in which the Doric and Ionic styles were happily blended, rose under the guidance of the brilliant architect Mnesicles; and,

The Acropolis and the Wall of Themistocles.

although never completed according to the architect's design, it remained among the greatest wonders of the city.

Of the host of statues of all kinds which fast thronged the Acropolis, particularly during the fifth century—among them the great bronze statue of Athené as champion (πρόμαχος), the bronze figure of the Wooden Horse, the heifer of Myron, and many others mentioned by ancient writers—we can take but passing notice. Their number was constantly increasing down to the times of the Roman Empire.

Some time in the period covered by the first Athenian empire the stately little Ionic temple of Athené Niké seems to have been reared upon the southwest bastion of the Acropolis, and surrounded on three sides with the exquisite marble balustrade, fragments of which are still preserved on the Acropolis.

The new Erechtheum, with its famous porch of the Maidens or Caryatides, was in course of construction at the close of the fifth century. See p. 112.

The agora of the inner Ceramicus, bounded on the south by the abrupt brow of the Areopagus, under which stood the statues of the Eponymi, the namesake-heroes of the ten Clisthenean tribes, seems to have been divided by a line of stone Hermae into a northern and a southern half. About the southern half stood various public buildings, the Council-hall (Βουλευτήριον), the Royal Stoa (Στοὰ Βασίλειος), the Painted Stoa (Στοὰ ποικίλη), the Metroön, the temple of Apollo Patroös, as well as the altar of the Twelve Gods and the statues of the democratic heroes Harmodius and Aristogiton. In its wider extent the agora of Ceramicus is bounded on the west by the hill of the so-called Theseum, and on the east

View of the Athenian Propylaea. Restoration. (Reber.)

by the gate of Athené Archegetis. Its chief existing monument is the later Stoa of Attalus, king of Pergamos. The mention of these public works needs to be complemented by a word in regard to private structures. The dwelling-houses of the city during the period of Athenian greatness stood in striking contrast with the public structures. Built along narrow, irregular, and ill-kept streets, they gave but little indication of the social position

The Acropolis. View Taken from the Olympieum.—Evening Effect.

or wealth of their occupants. In this respect the old city seems to have been inferior to the Piraeus, which was better laid out and contained more sumptuous private buildings. At all times, however, in both towns, houses and house-furniture were, for the most part, extremely simple, and the bustling open-air life of the male population was not conducive to private luxury. See Domus.

The Long Walls, destroyed at the close of the Peloponnesian War, were re-erected at the birth of the new Athenian empire, under which, and during the subsequent period of the Hellenistic successors of Alexander, the state received further adornment. Lycurgus completed the great stone theatre within the Lenaeum, overlapping the ancient Orchestra or “dancing-ring,” traces of which are still discernible. The Street of the Tripods, winding about the southeastern foot of the Acropolis, is still marked by the delicate choragic monument (q.v.) of Lysicrates (B.C. 334). The Stoa of Eumenes lies to the west of the great theatre. The eastern side of the market of Ceramicus is marked by the great stone bazaar of Attalus, previously noticed. Building was carried on by Antiochus Epiphanes till his death (in B.C. 164) upon the site of the old sanctuary of Zeus on the Ilissus, where Hadrian finally reared his colossal Corinthian temple, the few remaining columns of which (the στῦλοι) are one of the most prominent Athenian landmarks. Near it, towards the Acropolis, Hadrian set the gate, still standing, which should separate, according to its inscription, “the Athens of Theseus” from “the Athens of Hadrian.” An octagonal tower with waterclock within and weather-vane on the summit, and bearing on its several faces reliefs representing the winds (Horologium or “Tower of the Winds”), was erected by Andronicus Cyrrhestes (q. v.) southeast of the agora, where it still stands. The famous Herodes Atticus built, in honour of his dead wife Regilla, the great Odeum, adjoining the Stoa of Eumenes, under the southwestern slope of the Acropolis. These are among the most prominent monuments of the later Greek and the GraecoRoman period that still attract the visitor to the ancient site.

The subsequent history of the monuments is one of rapine, defacement, and destruction. The traces of the Valerian wall, forming a great loop north of the Acropolis, and the mediæval and modern fortifications, that have been removed from the approach to the Acropolis, are melancholy witnesses to barbarian invasion, mediæval slavery, and the struggle of reawakening liberty. The archives of the story of the material growth and development of the Athens that has influenced the world had been laid up for a curious posterity long before these structures arose.

Bibliography.—E. Curtius, Stadtgeschichte von Athen (Berlin, 1891) (a most valuable work, containing a full collection of ancient authorities, citations of modern publications, excellent drawings, plans, and maps); art. “Athen” in Baumeister's Denkmäler des klassischen Alterthums; “Athen” in Bädeker's Griechenland (Eng. trans. 1889). Other works are cited by Curtius. See Hellas.

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