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A candle, made either of wax (cerea) or tallow (sebacea), was used universally by the Romans before the invention of oil lamps (lucernae) (Varr. L. L. v. 119). They had for a wick the pith of a kind of rush called scirpus (Plin. H. N. xvi. 178). In Livy (xl. 29) fasces candelis involuti appear to be packets wrapped up in a kind of waxed cloth. In later times candelae were only used by the poorer classes; the houses of the more wealthy were always lighted by lucernae (Juv.iii. 287). See Becker-Göll, Gallus, ii. 390.

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    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 40, 29
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