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A funnel-shaped roll of paper used by the Roman shop-keepers to wrap powders, drugs, etc.—the English “screw” (Mart.iii.2). Hence


a cowl, intended to be used in the open air, and to be drawn over the head to protect it from the injuries of the weather, instead of a hat or cap. It was worn by travellers, shepherds, husbandmen, and hunters; and by soldiers on service in cold climates, as is seen on Trajan's Column; and also in city life, even by persons of distinction who wished to go abroad without being recognized ( 330). The cowl was sometimes a separate garment (Mart.xiv. 132). Occasionally it formed

Cucullus. (Figure from Aesernia.)

part of the lacerna or paenula or other cloak, which was then said to be cucullatus ( Orig. xix. 24, 17). This is shown in the figure annexed, from a relief representing a traveller leaving his inn (Bullet. Napol. 1848, 1). In either case the hood might be worn over the head or thrown back on the shoulder. The use of the cowl and also of the cape, which served the same purpose, was allowed to slaves by a law in the Codex Theodosianus. Cowls were imported into Italy from Saintonge in France (Santonico cucullo, Juv.viii. 145), and from the country of the Bardaei in Illyria. Those from the latter locality were probably of a peculiar fashion, which gave origin to the term bardocucullus.

hide References (2 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (2):
    • Martial, Epigrammata, 14.132
    • Martial, Epigrammata, 3.2
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