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(also called Ierné, Iverna, and Iuverna; Ἰέρνη, Ἰερνὶς νῆσος, Ἰουερνία; Keltic, Eri). The ancient name of Ireland, which is said to have been derived from the name of the early inhabitants of its southern coast, the Iuverni (Ἰούερνοι). It is mentioned in the pseudo-Orphic poem on the Argonautic expedition (line 1164), and by Aristotle (De Mundo, 3), who describes it as lying in the ocean beyond the Pillars of Hercules. Strabo says that it is too cold to be more than barely habitable; whereas Mela speaks of its herbage as so rich as to cause the cattle to eat until they burst with it. Solinus mentions the fact that there are no snakes in the island, and pictures the inhabitants as so warlike that on the birth of a male child the mother places the first bit of food in its mouth on the point of a sword. Ptolemy gives the names of the rivers and promontories, and describes the outline of the coast with surprising accuracy. He also names the principal tribes of the island—the Vennicnii in Ulster, the Nagnatae in Connaught, the Uterni in Munster, and the Brigantes and others in Leinster. On the coast were two towns—Menapia and Eblana (Dublin). The Romans made no attempt to conquer the island, though they gained some knowledge of it from the British traders who visited its coast.

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