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τρίκλινον). The dining-room of a Roman house, as to the position of which, relatively to the other parts of the house, see Domus, pp. 547, 549, with the diagrams there given. It was of an oblong shape, and was twice as long as it was broad. The superintendence of the diningroom in a great house was intrusted to a slave called tricliniarcha, who, through other slaves, took care that everything was kept and proceeded in proper order. A triclinium generally contained three couches, and as the usual number of persons occupying each couch was three, the triclinium afforded accommodation for a party of nine. Sometimes, however, as many as four lay on each of the couches. Each man, in order to feed himself, lay flat upon his breast, or nearly so, and stretched out his hand towards the table; but afterwards, when his hunger was satisfied, he turned upon his left side, leaning on his elbow. To this Horace alludes in describing a sated person turning in order to repose upon his elbow ( Sat. ii. 4, 39; but see Palmer ad loc.). We find the relative positions of two persons who lay next to one another commonly expressed in the prepositions super or supra and infra. A passage of Livy (xxxix. 43), in which he relates the cruel conduct of the consul L. Quintius Flamininus, shows that infra aliquem cubare was the same as in sinu alicuius cubare, and consequently that each person was considered as below him to whose breast his own head approached. On this principle we are enabled to explain the denominations both of the three couches, and of the three places on each couch. Supposing the annexed arrangement to represent the plan of a triclinium, it is evident that, as each guest re

lectus medius

clined on his left side, the countenances of all when in this position were directed, first, from No. 1 towards No. 3, then from No. 4 towards No. 6, and lastly from No. 7 towards No. 9; that the guest No. 1 lay, in the sense explained, above No. 2, No. 3 below No. 2, and so of the rest; and that, going in the same direction, the couch to the right hand was above the others, and the couch to the left hand below the others. It will be found that in a passage of the Eighth Satire of the second book of Horace the guests are enumerated in the order of their reclining—an order exhibited in the annexed diagram. See Cena; Mensa. For the dinner dress, see Synthesis.

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