Efficient checks on the handling of public
funds, whether municipal or national, were even more necessary among the
Greeks than in modern civilised countries; and the Athenians, with their
deep distrust of official honesty, sought refuge in multiplying such checks.
Hence it was the rule in Athenian finance, that wherever there was a public
officer entrusted with the payment of money, there was by his side an
who watched over him and
kept duplicate accounts. Thus it is proved by inscriptions that there was an
to each deme (C. I.
100); and a general in the field disposed of his military
chest subject to a like control. (Dem. de Chers.
The administrators of sacred funds, such as the ταμίαι τῆς θεοῦ
and the ἑλληνοταμίαι
or treasurers of Delos, were similarly
controlled (Inscr. 139, 141, 150, 158).
Two of these ἀντιγραφεῖς
stand out from the
rest as important public officers; the ἀντιγραφεὺς
and the ἀντιγραφεὺς
(Harpocrat., Suid. s. v.). The office of the
former was to control the expenditure of the public treasury (διοίκησις
), and to lay the revenue accounts
before the people in every prytany, so that he was a check upon the ἀποδέκται
]. This must be the officer described by
Aeschines (in Ctes.
§ 25) as “
” elected by χειροτονία
: his further
statement, that at one time the Athenians had carried their confidence in
Eubulus so far as to unite the offices of the ἀντιγραφεῖς
in the same persons, is either a rhetorical exaggeration, or, if true, an
instance of their infatuation where the Theoric fund was concerned [THEORICA]. Androtion's auditing of his own
accounts is represented by Demosthenes as an act of equal dishonesty and
The ἀντιγραφεὺς τῆς βουλῆς
elected by the people, but afterwards appointed by lot from the senate
itself; always, it would seem, from the non-presiding tribes, the prytanes
being excluded (C. I. G.
190). He was always present at the
meeting of the senate, and checked the accounts of moneys paid into its
keeping (Pollux, 8.98); but he is to be distinguished from the γραμματεὺς
who prefixed his name to its decrees.
He controlled financial matters only, not business generally.
The account of the checking-clerks in Böckh (P. E.
bk. ii. ch. 8) contains many inaccuracies in the first edition, from which
the English translation most in use is taken; and these are not entirely
corrected in the second edition. (Compare Schömann,
pp. 287, 318-19; Antiq.
378; Hermann, Staatsalterth.
§ 127, n. 17 and 18;
Wayte on Demosth. Androt.
p. 605.38, p. 615.70.) [W.W
. The distinction
between these and the GRAMMATEIS is perhaps too
strongly emphasised in both articles. The ργαμματεύς,
an assessor to the βουλή
appointed ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους,
and sees that
they are correctly transcribed (ἀντιγράφεται καὶ
Ath. Pol. 54).