). In the Athenian assemblies two modes of voting were
practised, the one by ballot [PSEPHUS
], the other by a show of hands (χειροτονεῖν
). The latter was the usual mode of conducting
business. Secret voting in general was only used when the personal interests
of individuals were concerned; as when the question was the condemnation or
acquittal of a person put on his trial, the remission of a punishment
(especially of ATIMIA
), or of a
pecuniary fine payable to the state, the conferring of citizenship on
strangers, or finally the banishment of a citizen by ostracism. Open voting
was employed on questions of public policy, such as war or peace, in voting
upon laws, and in some special kinds of trials on matters which concerned
the people, as upon προβολαὶ
In the elections of magistrates
), some were chosen by lot
); others, and these of
course the more important, e. g. the στρατηγοί,
by show of hands (ἀρχὴ
The grammarians attempt a distinction between αἱρετὴ
however is rejected by modern scholars (Arg.
p. 588). But the
undoubted distinction between ψηφίζεσθαι
is not always observed: we
find the word ψηφίζεσθαι
used where the
voting was really by show of hands (Lys. c. Eratosth.
§ § 44, 75; Dem. Olynth.
was taken first on the
affirmative, then on the negative side of the question at issue: the number
of hands was counted each time by the herald; and the president, upon the
herald's report, declared whether the ayes or noes had the majority
(ἀναγορεύειν τὰς χειροτονίας,
Aeschin. c. Ctes.
It is important to understand clearly the compounds of this word. A vote
condemning an accused person is καταχειροτονία
: one acquitting him, ἀποχειροτονία
(Dem. c. Mid.
p. 516.6; p.
553.120; p. 583.214): ἐπιχειροτονεῖν
confirm by a majority of votes (Leges ap.
Dem. de Cor.
pp. 235.9, 261.105): ἐπιχειροτονία τῶν νόμων
was a revision of the laws, which
took place at the beginning of the Attic year in the month of Hecatombaeon:
ἐπιχειροτονία τῶν ἀρχῶν
was a vote
taken in the first assembly of each prytany on the conduct of the
magistrates: in these cases, those who voted for the confirmation of the
law, or the continuance in office of the magistrate, were said ἐπιχειροτονεῖν,
those on the other side
p. 706.20; c. Theocrin.
Harpocrat. and Suidas, s. v. Κυρία
vote [p. 1.410]
for one of two alternatives (Dem. c.
p. 596.9; c. Timocr.
p. 707.25; c.
p. 1346, § § 4, 5): ἀντιχειροτονεῖν
to vote against a proposition:
is the show of hands on
the previous question, i. e. whether the people desired further discussion
or not (Dem. c. Timocr.
p. 703.11). The compounds of ψηφίζεσθαι
have similar meanings
pp. 120, 125, 231, 251, 330;
i. p. 335, E. T.). P. S.]