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DECADA´RCHIA or DECA´RCHIA (δεκαδαρχία, δεκαρχία), a council or government of Ten. 1. In Thessaly, established by Philip on his conquest of that country and overthrow of its tyrants in B.C. 352, after a defeat in the previous year (Dem. Phil. ii. p. 71.22, τὴν καθεστῶσαν νῦν δεκαδαρχίαν: the date fixed by Grote, ch. 87, 8.48). The τετραρχίαι of Phil. iii. p. 117.26, are only in apparent contradiction to this: they refer to four districts only (which however have been differently identified) and not to the whole country (Westermann in Pauly; Hermann, Staatsalterth. § 178, 18). 2. Introduced by Lysander at the close of the Peloponnesian war, and established in many Greek cities by the Lacedaemonians, who entrusted to it the whole government of the state under the direction of a Spartan harmost. It always consisted of the leading members of the aristocratical party. (Xen. Hell. 6.3, § 8; Isocr. Panath. § 68; Plut. Lys. 5 and 13; Grote, ch. 72 passim.) The form δεκαδαρχία is used by Demosthenes of the Thessalian institution, δεκαρχία by Xenophon and Isocrates of the Lacedaemonian.

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