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FRENUM (χαλινός), a bridle, including the bit, headstall, and reins. It was properly the bit as distinct from the reins (ἡνίαι); but in Xenophon (de Re Eq. 6.7), where he is instructing the groom in the mode of putting it on, χαλινὸς is the whole bridle, the several parts of it the ἡνίαι, στόμιον, and head-piece (κορυφαία). So, in Latin, frena in the plural is used for the whole bridle. The invention was mythically ascribed to Athena, who gave it to Bellerophon as the means of subduing Pegasus (Pind. O. 13.85 ff.). The annexed woodcut, from an

Pegasus receiving the bridle.

antique, represents the winged horse submitting to receive it as he slaked his thirst at the fountain of Peirene. In reference to this event, Athena was worshipped at Corinth under the titles Ἱππία and Χαλινῖτις (Paus. 2.4, § § 1, 5). The several parts of the bridle, more especially the bit, are engraved from ancient authorities in the treatises of Invernizi (de Frenis), Ginzrot (Ueber Wagen und Fahrowerke), and Bracy Clark (Chalinology, Lond. 1835). Illustrations have been already given under AMPYX, CARPENTUM, CLITELLAE, CURRUS, and EPHIPPIA; to these we add a beautiful specimen from the Castellani Collection in the British Museum. This is of bronze, and was found in Southern Italy; it is believed to date from pre-historic times, and shows the high antiquity of the ornamental bridles described below [cf. CATENA].

Ancient bronze bridle. (British Museum.)

The bit (στόμιον, Xen. l.c., Aesch. Prom. 1009; rarely δῆγμα, Brunck, Anal. 2.237 = Anth. Pal. 6.233: in Latin frenum is the only word in use, but oreae is quoted from Titinius, ap. Fest. s. v.) was commonly made of several pieces, and flexible, so as not to hurt the horse's mouth; for the Greeks considered a kind and gentle treatment the best discipline, although, when the horse was intractable, they taught it submission by means of a curb armed with sharp points. Xenophon recommends the use of two bits, a snaffle (λεῖος χαλινός) and a curb ( ἕτερος), the latter with sharp prickles (ἐχῖνοι, op. cit. 10.6). From the resemblance to wolves' teeth, a bit of this kind was called lupatum in Latin (Verg. G. 3.208; Hor. Carm. 1.8.7; Ov. Amor. 1.2, 15). The bit was held in its place by a strap (ὑποχαλινιδία, sc. ἡνία), or a curb-chain (ψάλιον, Aristoph. Peace 155); a halter or thong, distinct from the reins, was sometimes fastened to this chain or strap by means of a ring, and was used to lead the horse (ῥυταγωγεύς: all three words in Xen. 7.1). The upper part of the bridle, by which it was fastened behind the ears, is called by Xenophon κορυφαία (3.2; 6.7), and it included the AMPYX which was often ornamental. The cheek-pieces (παρήϊον, Hom. Il. 4.142; παραγναθίδιον, Eustath. ad . loc.), which joined this headstall to the bit, were also in some cases richly adorned, especially among the nations of Asia; in the passage of Homer the material is stained ivory. The bit, which, though commonly of bronze or iron, was sometimes silver or gold (χρυσοχαλίνων πάταγον ψαλίων, Aristoph. l.c.; fulvum mandunt sub dentibus aurum, [p. 1.877]Verg. A. 7.279). These precious metals were also either embossed (frena caelata, Apul. de Deo Socr. p. 54 Elm. = 173 Oud.), or set with jewels (gemmata monilia, on the horse of Honorius, Claud. Epigr. 18, 9 = 23, 9).

Not only was the bridle dispensed with in the management of creatures invented by the imagination of the poet (Aesch. Prom. 287), but of some which were actually trained by man to go without it. Thus the Numidian DESULTOR guided his two horses by the whip, and the Gallic ESSEDARIUS, on the banks of the Rhone, directed and animated his mules entirely by the voice (frenorumque vicem lingua virilis agit, Claud. Epigr. 1, 10).

[J.Y] [W.W]

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