) is [p. 1.912]
the name of the second of the three classes into which the inhabitants of
Attica were anciently divided (Plut. Thes.
; Pollux, 8.111). Aristotle (ap. Schol. Plat.
and in C. Müller, Fragm.
2.106) calls them γεωργοί.
This class, together with the third, the δημιουργοί,
was excluded from the great civil and priestly
offices which belonged exclusively to the Eupatrids, so that there was a
great distinction between the first and the two inferior classes; it is not
too much to say, indeed, that the Eupatrids were the only fully enfranchised
citizens (Gilbert, p. 115). The relation of these three classes to the four
old-Ionic tribes and the phratries is touched upon under EUPATRIDAE
On this, and on
the kindred question of the precise status of the γεωμόροι,
only conjectural results can be arrived at. The
name may either signify independent land--owners, or peasants who cultivated
the lands of others as tenants. The γεωμόροι
have, accordingly, by some writers been thought to be
free land-owners, while others have conceived them to have been a class of
tenants. It seems, however, inconsistent with the state of affairs in
Attica, as well as with the manner in which the name γεωμόροι
was used in other Greek states, to suppose that the
whole class consisted of the latter only; there were undoubtedly among them
a considerable number of freemen who cultivated their own lands, but had by
their birth no claims to the rights and privileges of the nobles (Ruhnken on
Timaeus, s. v. γεωμόροι
: Valckenaer on
Arnold on Thuc. 8.21
). The distinction between
and the δημιονργοὶ
was perhaps social rather than political; for in
the strictly political point of view both were unimportant, and may at best
have been summoned now and then to popular assemblies, like the commonalty
in the states described by Homer. This would account for the fact that
) only mentions two classes
of Attic citizens; one corresponding to the Roman patricians, the other to
the plebeians. But there was a social stigma attached to those who worked
for wages (βάναυσοι καὶ θῆτες,
iii. p. 1278, 12; καὶ τὸν μὲν γεωργικὸν δῆμον ὁρῶμεν ὄντα, τὸν δὲ
ἀγοραῖον, τὸν δὲ βάναϝσον,
ib. iv. p. 1289 b, 32) which
placed them below the poorest cultivator or small farmer. Some inferiority
is expressed by the term ἐπιγεωμόροι,
applied to the δημιουργοί
p. 395, 54; Lex. Seguer.
p. 257). (Thirlwall,
2.14; Grote, pt. ii. ch. 10, 2.280; Schömann, Antiq.
1.321, E. T.; Gilbert, Staatsalterth.
In Samos the name γεωμόροι
was applied to
the oligarchical party, consisting of the wealthy and powerful. (Thuc. 8.21
; Plut. Quaest. Gr.
3.1.4.) In Syracuse the
aristocratical party was likewise called γεωμόροι
opposition to the δῆμος.
; Hesych. sub
3.4.4; Göller, de Situ et Orig.
p. 9: cf. Grote, 2.244; Schömann,
1.126, 171, E. T.) [L.S
. For these, the
second of the Theseian classes in early Attica,. the name ἄ[γρ]οικοι
100.13. The restoration of the illegible letters is
undoubted. In a passage already cited (Dionys.
A. R. 2.8
) the plebs at Rome are called ἄγροικοι
in distinction from the εὐπατρίδαι
or patricians. Cf. Hesych. sub voce
: ἄγροικοι, καὶ γένος Ἀθήνησιν, οἳ ἀντιδιεστέλλοντο πρὸς
τοὺς εὐπατρίδας: ἦν δὲ τὸ τῶν γεωργῶν, καὶ τρίτον τὸ τῶν