an ear-ring; called in Greek ἐνώτιον,
because it was worn in the ear (οὖς
), and ἐλλόβιον,
because it was inserted into the lobe of the ear
), which was bored for the
purpose; also ἕρματα,
“to string together” (cf. ὅρμος
: Hom. Il. 14.182
ii. in Ven.
8; Plin. Nat. 12.2
Ear-rings were worn by both sexes in Oriental countries (Plin. Nat. 11.136
); especially by the
Lydians (Xen. Anab. 3.1
, § 31), the
Persians (Diod. 5.45
), the Babylonians (Juv. 1.104
), and also by the Libyans (Macr. 7.3.7
), and the Carthaginians (Plaut.
5.2, 21). Among the Greeks and Romans they were
worn only by females.
This ornament consisted of the ring (κρίκος,
Diod. Sic. l.c.
) and of the drops (stalagmia,
Ear-rings. (British Museum.)
Festus, p. 317; Plaut. Men.
3.3, 18). The ring
was generally of gold, although the common people also wore ear-rings of
bronze (see Nos. 1, 4, from the Egyptian Collection in the British Museum).
Instead of a ring a hook was often used, as shown in Nos. 6, 8. The women of
Italy still continue the same practice, passing the hook through the lobe of
the ear without any other fastening. The drops were sometimes of gold, very
finely wrought (see Nos. 2, 7, 8), and sometimes of pearls (Plin. ll. cc.;
Sen. de Ben.
10.265; Claud. de VI. Cons. Honor.
528; Sen. Phaedr.
400) and precious stones (Nos. 3, 5, 6).
The pearls were valued for being exactly spherical (Hor.
8, 13), as well as for their great size and delicate
whiteness; but those of an elongated form, called elenchi,
were also much esteemed, being adapted to terminate
the drop, and being sometimes placed two or three together for this purpose
(Plin. Nat. 9.113
; Juv. 6.459
). In the Iliad (14.182
), Hera, adorning herself in the most captivating manner, puts on
ear-rings made with three drops; on the epithets τρίγληνα μορόεντα,
see Helbig, d. Horn.
p. 271 f.; Leaf, ad loc.;
Pliny observes (11.136)
that greater expense was lavished on no part of the dress than on the
earrings; and according to Seneca the value of two or three estates might be
worn in a single ear (de Ben.
7.9.4; cf. de Vita
17.2). All the ear-rings above engraved belong to the
Hamilton Collection in the British Museum; we add another of a more
elaborate description, in which animal figures of high artistic beauty take
the place of mere ornamental patterns.
In opulent families the care of the ear-rings was the business of a female
slave, who was called Auriculae Ornatrix
). The Venus de' Medici, and other female
statues, have the ears pierced,
Inauris (British Museum)
and probably once had ear-rings in them. The statue of Achilles at
Sigeum, representing him in female attire, likewise had this ornament (Serv.
in Verg. A. 1.30
; Tertull. de