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MA´NICA

MA´NICA a sleeve, regarded as effeminate until the later Empire. Verg. A. 9.616, “Et tunicae manicas et habent redimicula mitrae O vere Phrygiae,” and Gel. 6.12, “Tunicis uti virum prolixis ultra brachia et usque in primores manus ac prope digitos Romae atque omni in Latio indecorum fuit.” But the fashion changed, “Talares et manicatas tunicas habere apud Romanos veteres flagitium erat nunc autem honesto loco natis, cum tunicati sunt non eas habere flagitium est.” (Augustin. de doct. Christ. 3.20.) Besides the use of sleeves sewed to the tunic, which, when so manufactured, was called chiridota or manicata tunica (Curt. 3.7, p. 12, ed. Zumpt), sleeves were also worn as a separate part of the dress. Palladius (de Re Rust. 1.43) mentions the propriety of providing ocreas manicasque de pellibus, i.e. leggings and sleeves made of hides, as useful both to the huntsman and to the agricultural labourer. The Roman gladiators wore, together with greaves, a sleeve of an appropriate kind on the right arm and hand (Juv. 6.255), as is exhibited in the woodcuts under GLADIATOR.

These parts of dress are mentioned together even as early as the Homeric age (see Od. 24.228, 229). In this passage the manicae (χειρίδες) seem to be fingerless gloves, worn on the hands to protect them from briars and thorns; and Eustathius, in his commentary on the other passage, distinguishes between these and gloves, which he calls χειρίδες δακτυλωταί (p. 1960, init.). The χειρὶς πλέα ἀργυρίου was probably not (as in Liddell and Scott) a sleeve, but a [p. 2.121]leathern glove, like that in the Odyssey, used as a purse.

Gloves with fingers (digitalia, Varro, de Re Rust. 1.55) were worn among the Romans for the performance of certain manual operations. Pliny the younger refers also to the use of manicae in winter to protect the hands from cold (Epist. 3.5). Those used by the Persians were probably made of fur, perhaps resembling muffs: the Persians also wore gloves in winter (δακτνλῆθραι, Xen. Cyrop. 8.3, § 17). In an enumeration of the instruments of torture used in the fourth century of the Christian era we observe “the glove” (Synes. Epist. 58); probably an iron glove for crushing the hand, as the “boot” did the leg.

Handcuffs were called manicae. (Verg. G. 4.439; Aen. 2.146;--Plaut. Asin. 2.2, 38; Capt. 3.5, 1; Most. 5.1, 17;--Non. Marcellus, s. v. Manicae.

In Lucan 3.565, manica is used as equivalent to MANUS FERREA

[J.Y] [G.E.M]

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