), boxing. The fist being the
simplest and most natural weapon, it may be taken for granted that boxing
was one of the earliest athletic games among the Greeks. Hence even gods and
several of the earliest heroes are described either as victors in the
or as distinguished boxers, such
as Apollo, Heracles, Tydeus, Polydeuces, &c. (Paus. 5.7.4
; Theocrit. 24.113; Apollod.
; Paus. 5.8.2
). The Scholiast
on Pindar (Pind. N. 5.89
) says that Theseus
was believed to have invented the art of boxing. The Homeric heroes are well
acquainted with it (Hom. Il. 23.691
&c.; compare Od. 8.103
&c.). The contest in boxing was one of the hardest and most
dangerous, whence Homer gives it the attribute ἀλεγεινή
Boxing for men was introduced at the Olympic games in Ol. 23, and for boys
in Ol. 37 (Paus. 5.8.3
). Contests in boxing for
boys are also mentioned in the Nemea and Isthmia (Paus. 6.4.6
In the earliest times boxers (pugiles,
) fought naked, with the exception of
round their loins (Hom. Il. 23.683
; Verg. A. 5.421
); but this was not used when boxing was
introduced at Olympia, as the contests in wrestling and racing had been
carried on here by persons entirely naked ever since Ol. 15 [cf. LUCTATIO, p. 82 b
Respecting the leathern thongs with which pugilists surrounded their fists,
where its various
forms are illustrated by woodcuts.
The boxing of the ancients appears to have resembled the practice of modern
times. It was a point of skill, we are told, not to attack the antagonist,
but to remain on the defensive, and thus to wear out the opponent, until he
was obliged to acknowledge himself to be conquered (Dio Chrysost.
Eustath. ad Il.
p. 1322, 29). It was considered a merit in a
boxer to conquer without receiving
any wounds, so
that the two great points in this game were to inflict blows, and at the
same time not to expose oneself to any danger (πληγὴ
Dio Chrysost. Serm.
2.5; compare Paus.
). As regards the position of the hands, no doubt it varied
according to circumstances, then as now. In art representations we see
sometimes the right arm guarding and the left striking, sometimes the
contrary: the blows were directed against the upper parts of the body, and
the wounds inflicted on the head, especially when the μύρμηκες
] were worn, were often severe (Horn. Od. 18.96
; Apollon. Rhod, 2.785; Theocrit. 2.126; Verg. A. 5.469
; Aelian, Ael. VH 10.19
). The ears especially were
exposed to great danger, and with regular pugilists they were generally much
mutilated and broken (Plat. Gorg.
p. 342; Martial, 7.33
). Hence in works of art the ears of the
pancratiasts always appear beaten flat, and, although swollen in some parts,
are yet smaller than ears usually are. In order to protect the ears from
severe blows, little covers, called ἀμφωτίδες,
were invented (Pollux, 2.82; Etymol.
s. v.). But these ear-covers were undoubtedly never used in the
great public games, but only in the gymnasia and palaestrae, or at most in
the public contests of boxing for boys; they are never seen in any ancient
work of art.
Pugilists, from a tomb at Chiusi. (Dennis.)
Two points of distinction between ancient and modern pugilists may be
noticed: (1) that, as we gather from vase-pictures, the fist was not
constantly doubled, as with us, but the fingers were often merely curved
over, sometimes almost extended; in some representations, however, the fists
are fairly clenched: probably the differences are due to the caestus;--(2)
the inarticulate sounds emitted by the boxers, instead of the modern
silence: this, according to Cicero, was to add force to the blow
2.23, 54; cf. Sen. Ep.
The game of boxing, like all the other gymnastic and athletic games, was
regulated by certain rules. Thus pugilists were not allowed to take hold of
one another, or to use their feet for the purpose of making one another [p. 2.525]
fall, as was the case in the pancratium (Plut.
2.4; Lucian, Anach.
3). Cases of
death, either during the fight itself or soon after, appear to have occurred
rather frequently (Schol. ad
Pind. O. 5.34
); but if a fighter wilfully
killed his antagonist, he was severely punished (Paus. 8.40.3
). If both the
combatants were tired without wishing to give up the fight, they might pause
a while to recover their strength; and in some cases they are described as
resting on their knees (Apollon. 2.86
; Stat. Theb. 6.796
). The contest did not end
until one of the combatants was compelled by fatigue, wounds, or despair, to
declare himself conquered (ἀπαγορεύειν,
), which was generally done by
lifting up one hand (Plut. Lyc. 19
The lonians, especially those of Samos, were at all times more distinguished
pugilists than the Dorians, and at Sparta boxing is said to have been
forbidden by the laws of Lycurgus (Paus. 6.2.4
Plut. Lyc. 19
). But the ancients
generally considered boxing as a useful training for military purposes, and
a part of education no less important than any other gymnastic exercise
3; Plut. Cat. Ma.
). Even in a medical point of view, boxing was recommended
(Aretaeus, De Morb. diut. cur.
In Italy boxing appears likewise to have been practised from early times
; Dionys. A. R. 7.72
). It continued as a popular game during the
whole period of the Republic as well as of the Empire (Suet. Aug. 45
de Leg. 2.1. 5
, 38; Suet.
18). We gather, especially from the passage in Suet.
that the Greek pugilists were regarded as much more
skilful than the Latin. Besides the “legitimi pugiles,” there
was a peculiarly Italian institution of catervarii
who fought, not in pairs, but in a general mêlée
(Suet. l.c.; C. I.
10.1074, where they are distinguished from pyctae
). See Krause, Die Gymnastik und Agon. d.
pp. 497-534; Blümner in Baumeister,
p. 523; Grasberger, Erziehung,