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RE´GIO The topographical description of Rome and Italy does not belong to this work, and, for the definition in that sense of the Roman and Italian regions, reference may be made to the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, articles ROMA and ITALIA; also to Middleton, Rome, pp. 243-246, and Richter, in Baumeister's Denkm. s. v. Röm. It is only necessary here to point out generally the different meanings and purposes of regiones. The word regio meant merely a district, or μοῖρα, of land, and signified thus the territorium round the Italian towns and subject to the same jurisdiction: “regiones dicimus intra quas singularum coloniarum et municipiorum magistratibus jus dicendi coercendique est libera potestas” (Sic. Flacc. p. 135). The whole regio so attached might comprise several pagi. [PAGUS p. 309.]

At Rome we have, after the extension of the Palatine city, four regions which dated from a period older even than the “Servian” city, since the area is less than that contained by the Servian walls: its limits correspond with the pomerium of republican times until the age of Sulla [POMERIUM p. 444], and mark the settlement of the four city tribes. For the administration in early times of these four regions, see QUINQUEVIRI, TRIBUNI AERARII, and TRIBUS In religious observances we may recognise these ancient districts in the sacraria of the ARGEI (Vol. I. p. 179). The regions of Rome with which we are more often concerned in Latin literature are those of Augustus, who did not enlarge the pomerium, but divided the whole inhabited city within and without the walls into 14 regions, and each region into vici of a varying number according to its size [VICUS]. These regions were each under the immediate control of a magistrate chosen by lot from the praetors, aediles, and tribunes (Suet. Aug. 30; D. C. 55.8): one cohors vigilum was assigned to each two regions [EXERCITUS Vol. I. p. 794 b].

Distinct from these are the eleven regions into which Augustus divided Italy (Plin. Nat. 3.46), Rome forming in this category the 12th region. These do not seem to have been administrative units, but only intended for convenience of denomination. The “regio Aemilia,” in Mart. 3.4, 6.85, is one of them. The regiones annonariae and urbicariae were a later division under Maximian, who in A.D. 286, residing himself at Milan, made a regio annonaria in the country north of the Rubicon, which supplied his court, and regiones urbicariae or suburbicariae to supply Rome. The disputed question as to the precise limits of these regions is beyond our scope here: on that point see Marquardt, Staatsverwalt. 1.231.


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