RHYTHMICARHYTHMICA The sources from which our knowledge of Greek rhythm is to be drawn are the following: the remains of Greek poetry and music, and the extant Greek and Latin writings on rhythm and metre. None of these, however, are altogether trustworthy or complete. The most important is the first mentioned, and, in regard to the simpler kinds of metres, the form of a metrical composition is generally sufficient for the determination of its approximate rhythmical value; but with lyrical poetry this is not usually the case, for the same combination of long and short syllables may be capable of different rhythms, and, even where the feet into which a metrical composition falls are sufficiently obvious, there is still a further question, not to be determined by the metrical form alone, as to the larger groups ( “sentences,” “periods,” &c.) formed by combination of the feet. The existing remains of ancient music consist of three “hymns,” none of them probably earlier than the middle of the second century A.D., and a few fragments of instrumental music (apparently of the nature of exercises) preserved by an unknown writer of uncertain date [see MUSICA]. These, though they furnish some important data, are yet too fragmentary and too late to throw much light on the rhythms of the classical period of Greek music. Of the writers on rhythm whose works have been at all preserved, the first in order of time and importance is Aristoxenus (fourth century B.C.). Though he lived more than a century later than the time at which Greek poetry and music attained their highest development, he was still thoroughly acquainted with the music of that time; but, unfortunately, his rhythmical works are preserved only in a fragmentary condition. The writings of later theorists are chiefly valuable in so far as they are based on Aristoxenus. The writers on metre (i.e. that species of rhythm which is exhibited in the measurement of syllables) are all of late date, and are for that reason to some extent untrustworthy. They are not acquainted with the music of the classical period, and their purely metrical point of view is inapplicable to the less obvious forms of metre in which the long syllable is not invariably equal to two short syllables, and in which feet of apparently different values (e. g. trochees and dactyls) are mixed together. The most important of the extant treatises on metre is the ἐγχειρίδιον of Hephaestion (second century A.D.). Rhythm in its strict sense consists of a continuous succession of short equal intervals of time, marked off from one another as separate groups by the alternation of an accentuated and an unaccentuated element.1 These intervals may be marked in different ways, e. g. by musical sounds, or by syllables, or, as in dancing, by the motions of the body (appealing to the eye rather than the ear). In order that a sense of rhythm may be produced it is not enough for the sounds to occur, simply at equal intervals: thus there is, strictly speaking, no rhythm in the ticking of a clock, for each tick being equal in intensity the ear by itself does not necessarily divide the sounds into groups or rhythmical divisions. The groups into which a succession of sounds fall are clearly recognised only when a sound more intense than its neighbours occurs at equal intervals of time. This accentuated part of each group is called by Aristoxenus βάσις, by the earliest writers after Aristoxenus θέσις. The unaccentuated part is called ἄρσις. Other names are for the “thesis,” ὁ κάτω χρόνος or τὸ κάτω; for the “arsis,” ὁ ἄνω χρόνος or τὸ ἄνω (so in Plato, Rep. 3, p. 400, and in Aristoxenus, p. 288, ed. Mor.). All these terms originated in the fact that the accentuated, portion of the group was marked by setting down the foot, the unaccentuated by lifting it up. Confusion is, however, caused by later writers using the terms “arsis” and “thesis” in different senses. Sometimes they are applied to the raising and lowering of the voice, so that “arsis” denotes the accentuated, and thesis the “unaccentuated” beat. This, which is the exact opposite of the original meaning of the terms, is the sense given to them by most modern writers, following the example of Bentley. In Marius Victorinus, p. 2482, the two meanings are given, apparently without any sense of their incongruity, “est enim arsis sublatio pedis sine sono, thesis positio pedis cum sono: item arsis elatio temporis soni vocis, thesis depositio et quaedam contractio syllabarum.” Sometimes a wholly different meaning is given to the terms, “arsis” denoting the first, element of the foot in order of succession, “thesis” the second; then the “arsis” of the iambic is the short syllable, the “thesis” the long, and vice versâ with the trochee (so e. g. in Marius Victorinus, p. 2487). In this article the words are used in their original senses. The Syllable.--Rhythm when applied to language is marked by an alternation of accentuated and unaccentuated syllables. In Greek and Latin there is a further distinction between long and short syllables. The rhythmical groups or “feet” are generally, but not invariably, marked by an alternation of long and short syllables, the “ictus” falling more frequently on the long than on the short syllable. The long syllable in its normal value is equal to two short syllables, but there is evidence that this was not the only value of the long syllable. The anonymous writer περὶ μουσικῆς, who has preserved the musical exercises already referred to, states ( § 1, ed. Bellermann) that the long syllable has sometimes the value of three, four, and even five [p. 2.559]short syllables, the symbols of these values being as follows:--[triseme] for the long syllable which=three short syllables.
[tetraseme] for the long syllable which=four short syllables.
[pentaseme] for the long syllable which=five short syllables. The short syllable being regarded as the usual unit of time, not further divisible (called by Aristoxenus χρόνος πρῶτος, later σημεῖον), the long syllable may be either δίχρονος (or δίσημος), τρίχρονος (τρίσημος), τετράχρονος (τετράσημος), or πεντάχρονος (πεντάσημος), According to Pseudo-Euclid, εἰσαγωγὴ ἁρμονική, p. 22, ed. Meibom., it appears that the name τονὴ was applied to the prolongation of the long syllable beyond its usual value (τονὴ δὲ ἡ ἐπὶ πλείονα χρόνον μονὴ κατὰ μίαν γινομένη προφορὰν τῆς φωνῆς). The Anonymus ( § 3) also refers to pauses (κενοί, sc. χρόνοι) as constituent elements in rhythm, and enumerates four kinds--viz. the [pause], κενὸς βραχύς (or λεῖμμα, Arist. Quint. de Mus. pp. 40, 41, ed. Meibom.=one short syllable).
[macrpause], κενὸς μακρὁς (or πρόσθεσις, ibid.=one long syllable).
[trisemepause], κενὸς μακρὸς τετράχρονος=three short syllables.
[tetrasemepause], κενὸς μακρὸς τετράχρονος=four short syllables. From the musical notation of the “hymns,” already referred to, it appears that the long syllable equal to three short syllables is sometimes noted by a pause [pause] placed after the note on which the long syllable falls. Aristoxenus (p. 292, ed. Mor.) also speaks of a quantity which is intermediate between the normal long and the normal short, which, if the short syllable be taken as=1, will be represented by 1 1/2 . A foot in which the thesis is to the arsis in the “irrational” proportion of 2 : 1 1/2 is called by Aristoxenus χορεῖος ἄλογος, and is probably to be identified with the spondee, which is often found in trochaic and iambic metres in the even and odd places respectively. If this be so, the long syllable in the arsis of trochaic and iambic feet is of abnormal value = 1 1/2 instead of 2. According to Bacchius (εἰσαγωγὴ τέχνης μουσικῆς, p. 23, Meibom.) the exact measurement of the ἄλογος χρόνος is difficult to determine, but it is shorter than the normal long, and longer than the normal short. The Foot.--The smallest rhythmical groups marked by alternation of thesis and arsis are called “feet” (πόδες, pedes). These feet are divided into three genera, according to the relation between the thesis and the arsis. Feet in which thesis : arsis
If this was so, these long feet were in reality combinations of feet, i. e. κῶλα. The Sentence (κῶλον).--A series of feet recurring without a break, in which the thesis always had an ictus of equal intensity and which did not form larger groups, would soon become monotonous. Hence the feet are combined in larger groups called κῶλα or “sentences.” The structure of these “sentences” is similar to that of the feet. There are three genera of κῶλα as there are of feet; like the feet, they fall into two portions bearing a definite relation to one another, and, like the feet, they are strictly limited in extent. In consequence of this analogy they are sometimes called πόδες. The single foot is a ποὺς ἁπλοῦς or ἀσύνθετος: the κῶλον, or combination of feet, is a ποὺς σύνθετος. The number of feet combined in a κῶλον is never more than six, and seldom more than four. A κῶλον of two or four feet belongs to the γένος ἴσον or δακτυλικόν, being composed of feet bearing an equal relation, viz. either 1 : 1 or 2 : 2. A κῶλον of three or six feet belongs to the γένος διπλάσιον or ἰαμβικόν, being composed of feet bearing the relation 2 : 1 or 4 : 2. A κῶλον of five feet belongs to the γένος ἡμιόλιον or παιωνικόν, the relation of the feet of which it is composed being 3 : 2. As to the extent of the κῶλον it is stated by Aristides Quintilianus, i. p. 35, and by Psellus, προλαμβανόμενα, § 12 (apparently an extract from Aristoxenus), that a κῶλον of the ἴσον γένος cannot sixteen units of time; a κῶλον of the διπλάσιον γένος cannot exceed eighteen units of time; and a κῶλον of the ἡμιόλιον γένος cannot exceed twenty-five units of time. In these calculations the short syllable is taken as the unit of time. Applying these canons to the different πόδες ἁπλοῖ, it appears that the iambic or the trochee may form κῶλα of two, three, four, five, or six feet:--
|˘ ¯||˘ ¯||=||6||γένος ἴσον.|
|¯ ˘||¯ ˘|
|˘ ¯ ˘ ¯||˘ ¯ ˘ ¯||=||12|
|¯ ˘ ¯ ˘||¯ ˘ ¯ ˘|
|˘ ¯ ˘ ¯||˘ ¯||=||9||γένος διπλάσιον.|
|¯ ˘ ¯ ˘||¯ ˘|
|˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯||˘ ¯ ˘ ¯||=||18|
|¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘||¯ ˘ ¯ ˘|
|˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯||˘ ¯ ˘ ¯||=||15||γένος ἡμιόλιον.|
|¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘||¯ ˘ ¯ ˘|
|¯ ˘ ˘||¯ ˘ ˘||=||8||γένος ἴσον.|
|˘ ˘ ¯||˘ ˘ ¯|
|¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘||¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘||=||16|
|˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯||˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯|
|¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘||¯ ˘ ˘||=||12||γένος διπλάσιον.|
|˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯||˘ ˘ ¯|
|¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘||¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘||= 20 γένος ἡμιόλιον.|
|˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯||˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯|
|¯ ˘ ˘ ˘||¯ ˘ ˘ ˘||=10 γένος ἴσον.|
|¯ ˘ ¯||¯ ˘ ¯|
|¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘||¯ ˘ ˘ ˘||=15 γένος διπλάσιον.|
|¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯||¯ ˘ ¯|
|¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘||¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘||=25||γένος ἡμιόλιον.|
|¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯||¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯|
|¯ ¯ ˘ ˘||¯ ¯ ˘ ˘||=12 γένος ἴσον.|
|˘ ˘ ¯ ¯||˘ ˘ ¯ ¯|
|¯ ˘ ˘ ¯||¯ ˘ ˘ ¯|
|¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘||¯ ¯ ˘ ˘||=18 γένος διπλάσιον.|
|˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯||˘ ˘ ¯ ¯|
|¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯||¯ ˘ ˘ ¯|
¯ ˘ [macrict] ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ||
¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ [macrict] ˘ ¯ ˘ ||
¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ [macrict] ˘ || In each of the κῶνα hitherto considered the feet are all of the same metrical value, i. e. all trochees, iambics, dactyls, anapaests, paeons, ionics, choriambics, or their equivalents, e. g. tribrachs, spondees, cretics. The only exception is that of the “irrational” spondee in trochaic and iambic metres, e. g. ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ for ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘. There is, however, a class of metres of very frequent occurrence in which feet of different metrical value, viz. trochees and dactyls (or iambics and anapaests), e. g. ¯ ˘ | ¯ [brevemacr] | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘| are combined in the same κῶλον. These metres are called “mixed” (μικτά), or logaoedic (λογαοιδικά). The latter name was probably given to these metres because, from their apparent irregularity, they seemed to be intermediate between prose (λόγος) and poetry or song (ἀοιδή). The explanation of this union of trochee and dactyl, and the rhythmical relation between them, is uncertain, though it is generally admitted that the time occupied by the trochee and the dactyl must have been equal. The popular theory, adopted by J. H. H. Schmidt in his Kunstformen der griechischen Poesie, is that the long syllable and the first short syllable in the dactyl both lost something of their normal value, the long syllable being in this case = 1 1/2 and the first short syllable = 1/2 so that the dactyl = 1 1/2 + 1/2 + 1 = 3 = the trochee = 2 1. This value, which is represented in modern books by the symbol ¯ ˘ ˘, is supposed to be confirmed by two passages in Dionysius of Halicarnassus, de Comp. Verb. chapters 17 and 20, and the foot is usually called the “cyclic” dactyl, because Dionysius (ibid. 100.17) says that the rapid dactyl of which the long syllable loses something of its normal value is parallel to the anapaest with an “irrational” long syllable, which is called κύκος. Westphal, however, has shown that the passages in Dionysius cannot be used in support of the so-called “cyclic” dactyl in logaoedics, because Dionysius is speaking of mere recitation, not of singing. The rhythm was probably always less exact in the former than in the latter, just as in the case of modern poetry the rhythm of recitation is less exact than that of singing. It is more probable that the long syllable and the short syllable in the logaoedic dactyl retained their normal relation to each other, viz. that of 2 : 1, but that the long and short syllables were each pronounced more rapidly than the long and short syllables in the trochee. This may be expressed in figures as follows: If in the trochee the long syllable = 2 and the short syllable = 1, then in the dactyl the long syllable = 6/4 , the short syllable = 3/4 . Then the trochee = 2+ 1=3= the dactyl = 6/4 + 3/4 + 3/4 = 1 2/4 = 3. Possibly, however, it should rather be supposed that the equality between the trochee and the dactyl was not thus accurately defined, but that the ear was satisfied if the time occupied by the two feet was approximately equal, the difference between them being imperceptible, without any obvious violation of the usual proportion between long and short syllables. The limits of the logaoedic κῶλον seem to be the same as those of the iambic or trochaic. It may consist of either two, three, four, five, or six feet; the six-feet κῶλα are, however, apparently rare, and it is possible that what seem to be six-feet κῶλα are a combination of two κῶλα of four feet and two feet respectively. If the account of the logaoedic κῶλον here given is correct, the time occupied by all the feet which compose it is the same; but there is one peculiar metre, the dochmiac, the κῶλα of which are probably composed of feet which differ from one another in duration. The normal form of the dochmiac is ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯, but as all the long syllables admit of resolution into two short syllables, and the first (as well as occasionally the second) short syllable may be long, it assumes very various forms. It is doubtful whether the chief ictus is on the first or on the second long syllable, i. e. ˘ [macrict] ¯ ˘ ¯ or ˘ ¯ [macrict] ˘ ¯. The dochmiac seems to consist of a union of feet in which there is a real change of rhythm, one foot being in three time, the other in five time, i. e. ˘ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ¯ or ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯. Westphal (Metrik, ed. 3) supposes that either there is a pause equal to one long syllable at the end of each dochmiac, or the final syllable is lengthened by τονή, i. e. ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ [macrpause] or ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ [tetraseme]. In this case the dochmiac would fall into two equal portions, each containing five units of time ˘1 ¯2 ¯2. But this view seems inconsistent with the fact that occasionally a dochmiac ends with two short syllables in the middle of a word. A κῶλον may be either completely filled by the syllables used in their ordinary metrical value, or it may require for its completion a pause (λεῖμμα, πρόσθεσις） or a prolongation (τονὴ) of a syllable beyond its ordinary value. An instance of a κῶλον which is complete without either pause or prolongation is the trochaic tetrapody ¯ ˘ | ¯ [brevemacr] | ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ||, while the κῶλον ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ | ¯ || is incomplete and requires either a pause ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ | ˘ [pause] || or a prolongation ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ | [triseme] || for its completion. [p. 2.562] When the κῶλον is complete without these devices, it is called acatalectic (ἀκαταληκτικόν), i. e. not stopping (καταλήγω) before its proper end; when it is incomplete, it is called catalectic (καταληκτικόν). When a κῶλον is scanned κατὰ συζυγίαν, i. e. in couples of two feet, if, according to the metrical form, the last foot is wanting, as in ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ &[trisemepause] ||, it is said to be brachy-catalectic (βραχυκατάληκτον). When a κῶλον which is scanned κατὰ συζυγίαν has one apparently superfluous syllable exceeding the last dipody in the κῶλον, as e. g. in ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘, it is said to be hypercatalectic (ὑπερκατάληκτον). Cases of this latter kind are, however, probably more apparent than real. A κῶλον of the apparent form ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ is usually a trochaic tripody ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ [triseme] or ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ [pause], and a κῶλον of the apparent form ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ may be found where the next κῶλον begins with a thesis, and where therefore the arsis of the preceding κῶλον combines with the thesis of the following κῶλον to form a single foot, or where the κῶλον before it ends with a thesis, and therefore the arsis of the apparently hypercatalectic κῶλον combines with the thesis of the preceding κῶλον. It is not always possible to divide a metrical composition into its κῶλα with certainty. In the simpler forms of metre the divisions are usually obvious, but in the more elaborate kinds of lyrical poety this is not so. One criterion by which it has been sought to determine the length of the κῶλα in such doubtful cases will be considered under the next head, viz. that of the “period.” The Period.--As a combination of feet forms a κῶλον, so a combination of κῶλα forms a περίοσο. It has been seen that the unity of the κῶλον was probably marked by its having one ictus stronger than the rest; the unity of the period was marked probably by the modulation of the voice varying in pitch and intensity with the beginning, middle, and end of the period, and certainly by the admission of a distinct pause at the end of the period, separating it from what follows. This pause is indicated in three ways. (1) Each period ends with the end of a word: a word cannot be divided between two periods as it can be between two κῶλα (Hephaest. 100.4, p. 16, ed. W., πᾶν μέτρον εἰς τελείαν περατοῦται λέξιν). (2) Hiatus is allowed at the end of a period; i. e. a period may end with a vowel, and the following period begin with a vowel without elision taking place. (3) The last syllable of each period may be either long or short (συλλαβὴ ἀδιάφορος, syllaba anceps) without reference to the quantity strictly required by the rhythm. This is explained by the pause at the end of the period. As there is a pause, it does not matter whether the last syllable is long or short: if it is long where the rhythm otherwise would require a short syllable, this is immaterial, because the short syllable would in this case be followed by a pause; if it is short where the rhythm otherwise would require a long syllable, the pause makes up the required length. Where the same period recurs frequently, as in the odes of Pindar, the observance of these three conditions makes it possible to determine the places at which the period ends, in most cases with complete certainty. The odes of Pindar were first divided into periods by the help of these criteria by Boeckh, in his edition of Pindar (Leipzig, 1811). The pause may occur at the end of a single κῶλον: in this case the κῶλον is a period. The word period is the most general term for a κῶλον, or a combination of κῶλα, after which a distinct pause is admissible. There are, however, other terms which are used to distinguish certain species of periods. When a κῶλον, or a combination of κῶλα, consists of not less than three συζυγίαι (six feet), and not more than four συζυγίαι (eight feet), it is called a verse (στίχος, versus) (Hephaest. περὶ ποιήματος, 100.1, p. 64, ed. W.). On this principle the iambic trimeter (six feet) and the dactylic hexameter (six feet) are both called στίχος. Another name for a period not exceeding eight feet is μέτρον. The μέτρον must not exceed thirty units of time, according to Hephaestion (100.13, pp. 42, 43, W.), where it is said that the paeonic μέτρον (of which each foot contains five units ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘) may extend to six feet, which will not exceed the thirty units; but the scholiast on this passage (p. 199, ed. W.) asserts that, according to other metricians, the μέτρον might extend to thirty-two units. It is probable that the anapaestic tetrameter (˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ || ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¶) was the longest verse (στίχος or μέτρον) recognised by the metricians, and that this was regarded as containing thirty-two or thirty χρόνοι, according as the penultimate syllable was lengthened by τονὴ (= [tetraseme]) or not. A period which exceeds thirty-two χρόνοι is a ὑπέρμετρον. The commonest form of the “verse” in nonlyrical poetry is that which is formed by two κῶλα: this structure is illustrated by the dactylic hexameter and the trochaic tetrameter:--¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯, ˘ ˘ || ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ [macrbreve] ¶
¯ ˘ ¯ [brevemacr] ¯ ˘ ¯ [brevemacr]: || ¯ ˘ ¯ [brevemacr] ¯ ˘ [macrbreve] [pause] ¶ The comma and the colon in this notation indicate the end of a word. When a verse of two κῶλα is divided in such a way that the arsis of the first κῶλον is formed by the beginning of a word belonging to the second κῶλον, it is said to have a caesura (τομή); when the end of the first κῶλον coincides with the end of a word, it is said to be divided by κιαίρεσις. The dactylic hexameter has caesura, marked by the comma; the trochaic tetrameter has diaeresis, marked by the colon. In these verses the κῶλα belong to the same species; there are, however, verses or periods in which the combined κῶλα belong apparently to different genera. Such rhythms are called μέτρα ἐπισύνθετα (Hephaest. 100.15, p. 56, W., and Schol. to Hephaest. pp. 201, 202, W.). Such is the verse ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ || ¯ ˘ ¯ [brevemacr] ¯ ˘ ¯ [brevemacr] ¶, which appears to be a combination of the κῶλα contained in the dactylic hexameter and the trochaic tetrameter. These episynthetic metres are also called dactylo-trochaic or dactylo-epitritic, according as the trochees are pure (e. g. ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘), or admit the “irrational” syllable (¯ ˘ ¯ ¯). There is a difficulty in determining the rhythmical value of these metres, similar to that which has already been discussed in connexion with logaoedics, and, as in the former case, two different solutions of the difficulty have been proposed. The popular explanation is, that in the apparent trochee the value of the long syllable is [p. 2.563]longer by half than its normal value, i. e.=three instead of two units; then ¯ ˘ = [triseme] ˘ = 3 + 1 = 4 = the dactyl = 2 + 1 + 1. The more probable explanation is that in the trochee the long syllable retains its normal proportion to the short syllable, but that the long syllable and the short syllable in the trochee are each pronounced more slowly than the long syllable and the short syllable in the dactyl. Thus, if the long syllable and the short syllable in the dactyl = 2 and 1 respectively, the long syllable and the short syllable in the trochee = 8/3 and 4/3 respectively; hence the dactyl = 2 + 1 + 1 = 4 = the trochee = 8/3 + 4/3 = 1 2/3 = 4. In the third edition of Rossbach and Westphal's Metrik, vol. 3 (1889), it is argued that episynthetic metres are in three time, the spondee being “irrational” = 2 : 1 1/2 , and the dactyl being “cyclic” = 3. There is another term for certain combinations of κῶλα in periods the meaning of which is doubtful. This is the word asynartete, of which Hephaestion (100.15, p. 47, W.) gives the following explanation: γίνεται δὲ καὶ ἀσυνάρτηρα, ὁπόταν δύο κῶλα μὴ δυνάμενα ἀλλήλοις συναρτηθῆναι μηδὲ ἕνωσιν ἔχειν ἀντὶ ἑνὸς μόνου παραλαμβάνηται στίχου. He then proceeds to give instances of “asynartete” verse, and his account is supplemented by the Scholia on the chapter (pp. 201 ff. W.). It is obvious that the definition given by Hephaestion is little more than verbal, and the meaning must be sought by comparing the different instances which he gives and observing what they have in common. The first modern scholar who brought the word to light, and attempted an explanation of it, was Bentley, in his edition of Horace. In a note on the 11th Epode he arrives at the conclusion that asynartete verses are those in which there is a combination of κῶλα belonging to different rhythmical genera, e. g. dactylic and trochaic, as in the verse ¯ ˘ [macrbreve] ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ || ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ [brevemacr] ¶, and in which, although the two κῶλα coalesced to form a verse, the preceding κῶλον was separated by a pause from the following, so that hiatus and “syllaba anceps” were allowable, as in the lines of Horace:-- arguit et latere petitus imo spiritus ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ [macrbreve] || ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ [macrbreve] ¶
fervidiore mero arcana promorat loco ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ || ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¶
It has, however, been shown by Westphal that Bentley's theory is applicable only to one of the seventeen asynartete verses quoted by Hephaestion. His own view is that asynartete verses are those in which there is catalexis in the first of the two κῶλα, as e. g. in the dactylic pentameter. ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ || ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¶ The rhythm in such a case may be completed either by τονὴ or by a pause, thus:--¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ [tetraseme] || ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ [macrpause] ¶
¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ [macrpause] || ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ [macrpause] ¶ This explanation is applicable to the majority of the asynartete verses quoted by Hephaestion, but it is certainly not applicable to all the “episynthetic” asynartetes, of which Hephaestion quotes seven kinds, and it cannot be applied to any of them without the unwarrantable assumption that the apparent dactylic tripody ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ is really “brachycatalectic,” i. e. = ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ [tetraseme] [tetraseme] or ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ [tetraseme] ¯ [macrpause]. It appears, therefore, that the meaning of the term asynartete cannot be determined with certainty. The word period is used by J. H. H. Schmidt in his Kunstformen der griechischen Poesie in a sense different from that of the ancient writers on rhythm and metre. He understands by it a combination of κῶλα or verses, which are bound together by a definite principle of arrangement or symmetry. According to this theory, in the majority of lyrical compositions, every κῶλον (with certain definite exceptions) corresponds to some other κῶλον, and contains precisely the same number of feet as the κῶλον with which it corresponds. Any set of κῶλα which is bound together by such correspondences is called by him a “period.” These periods are variously constructed. The simplest form of period is that in which one κῶλον is followed by another containing the same number of feet, as e. g. in the dactylic hexameter ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ || ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ [macrbreve] ¶: the period is divided into two κῶλα, each consisting of three feet; such a period he calls “stichic.” A more developed form is that in which a κῶλον of the same number of feet is repeated more than once, e. g. a period consisting of three dactylic tripodies; such a combination he calls a repeated “stichic” period. A “palinodic” period is one in which, instead of a single κῶλον, two κῶλα forming a group are answered by two κῶλα forming a similar group: thus, e.g., if a group of two κῶλα, consisting of six feet and five feet respectively, were followed by a second group consisting of a hexapody and pentapody. If the group were repeated a second time, the result would be a repeated “palinodic” period. If the period be such that the correspondence is between the first κῶλον and the last, between the second and the last but one, Schmidt calls it “antithetic” ; such would be a period of the annexed form, where the dot denotes the end of a verse, and the numbers the number of feet in each κῶλον.