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TAXIARCHI (ταξίαρχοι) were military officers at Athens, who were next in rank to the strategi [STRATEGUS]. They were ten in number, like the strategi, one for each tribe, and were elected in the same way, namely by χειροτονία (Dem. Phil. i. p. 47, § § 26, 27; Pollux, 8.87). In war each commanded the infantry of his own tribe (Dem. c. Boeot. i. p. 999.17; Aesch. de fals. Leg. § 169), and they were sometimes, at any rate, summoned to the council of war (Thuc. 7.60). In peace they assisted the strategi in levying and enlisting soldiers; the preparation of the register (κατάλογος) of those liable to service rested upon the demarchs for each deme, and the taxiarchs as representing the tribes, under the strategi. They might also be called upon to act as the deputies of the strategi in military trials (Dem. c. Boeot. l.c.).

The taxiarchs were so called from their commanding τάξεις, which were the principal divisions of the hoplites in the Athenian army. Each tribe (φυλὴ) formed a τάξις, whence we find φυλὴ used as synonymous with τάξις <(Lys. in Agorat. § § 79, 82). As there were ten tribes, there were consequently in a complete Athenian army ten τάξεις, but the number of men contained in each would of course vary according to the importance of the war. Among the other Greeks the τάξεις was the name of a much smaller division of troops. The λόχος among the Athenians was a subdivision of the τάξις, and the λοχαγοὶ were probably appointed by the taxiarchs (Schömann, Ant. Jur. Publ. p. 253 ff.).

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