a thick, double cloak, which, according to Servius
Verg. A. 5.421
), resembled the chlamys, and
which he identifies with the duplex pannus
Horace (Hor. Ep. 1.17
). It was of foreign origin; and in a Roman
inscription (A.D. 202) found in Mauretania, there is mentioned the abolla cenatoria
in a Lex vestis
(C. I. L.
8.4508). The generally
accepted identification of the word with the Greek ἀναβολὴ
is questionable etymologically; and it is rightly
pointed out by Daremberg and Saglio (s. v.), that the Greek word applies
especially to the manner of wearing any
(thrown back over the shoulder), while the Latin denotes a cloak of a
particular form. Varro (ap. Nonium, p. 538, 16) contrasts it with the toga
as a distinctively military garment (vestis
), much as the sagum and toga are commonly contrasted.
The sagum (q. v.
) appears as early as Cato (Cat. Agr. 59
) to have been not confined to
military wear; and the abolla similarly had become in imperial times an
indiscriminately worn garment. Thus we find it used as an outdoor dress in
Juvenal, 4.76. Ptolemy of Mauretania offended Caligula by the
Abolla, Military Cloak.
splendour of his purpurea abolla
(Suet. Cal. 35
), and Martial satirizes a
similar extravagance in the fop Crispinus (abolla
8.48). While for rich and fashionable wearers the original
military form of the abolla was probably altered,
and its rough texture exchanged for fine linen, it seems to have retained or
exaggerated its simple coarseness when adopted by philosophers. It was thus
worn by the cynic, serving alike for day-and night-clothes (Martial, 4.53.5
; Hor. Ep. l.c.,
the τρίβων διπλοῦς,
D. L. 6.22
). Hence facinus
“a crime committed by a deep philosopher.” The abolla as
worn by soldiers is probably to be recognised in the bas-relief from the
arch of Septimius Severus, figured above; as worn by philosophers, in the
annexed representation from a silver vase in the Paris Cabinet des
Abolla, Cloak of Philosophers.
and Saglio, s.v. cf. Marquardt, Röm.
vii. p. 553).