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1. Sand.

The composition of Roman mortar and cement is described under STRUCTURA: we here notice the different kinds of sand employed,--a subject to which Vitruvius has devoted a chapter (2.4). He reckons four kinds of pit sand (fossilis), besides sea and river sand; the black (nigra), the white (cana), the red (rubra), and the volcanic (carbunculus: cf. Varr. L. L. 1.9, 2). Pliny recognises only the distinctions of sea, river, and pit sand, not those of colours (H. N. 36. § § 54, 55). In another chapter (2.6) Vitruvius describes the pulvis Puteolanus, or volcanic sand of the [p. 1.179]neighbourhood of Vesuvius, as a different material, unaware that it is substantially identical with that of the Roman Campagna. The modern name pozzolana is applied indifferently to both.

2. Amphitheatre



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