), what is “joined
to” the walls, means the beam of a house (Plaut. Aul.
2.6, 8), or, more usually, a pole, e. g. the pole of a litter (Juv. 3.245
). In warfare different kinds of long
were used: (1) falcati asseres
), also called harpagones
), poles with hooks at the ends, used for tearing down
battlements. (2) At sea, similar poles (called longurii
) were used for destroying the rigging of the enemy's
ships (Caes. Gal. 3.14
). (3) Poles, twelve feet long, with sharp
points (cuspidibus praefixi
), hurled from
engines against the works of the besiegers (Caes. B.C.
(4) Strong beams with grappling hooks (corvi et ferreae
) attached, which were let drop on the enemy's ships (Q.