a reed. Under this head it seems desirable
to group an account of the most important objects made of reeds of various
kinds. The varieties of the reed are described by Theophrastus (H.
4.11, 12) and Pliny (Plin. Nat.
. § § 159-173), one of the most notable being the
found in Syria and Arabia
(Col. 12.52; Plin. Nat. 12.104
; Veget. 4.13), and used in the
manufacture of unguents. Κάλαμος
larger sort of reed than δόναξ,
Reeds were extensively used for thatching and wall-building; for making mats,
crates, and other articles of plaited work (Hdt.
; Thuc. 2.76
); and for many purposes
for which a light stick was needed,--e. g. a signal-post (calamus,
Col. 3.15), an Egyptian sign-post (Plin. Nat. 6.166
), a rod to brush down
2.2, 23), the bridge of the lyre (δόϝαξ,
Aristoph. Frogs 232
), the cross-piece
on which the lyre-strings are fastened (κάλαμος
34). Reeds were also
employed in the following uses:--
1. The Pan's pipes (σῦριγξ
), formed of reeds
of graduated length bound together by wax, as shown in the accompanying cut
; Tib. 2.5, 29-32;
Ov. Met. 2.682
ib. 1.684, 11.154;
Eur. I. T.
2. A light flute, formed of a single reed (harundo,
Ov. Met. 6.384
Pind. O. 10.100
Calamus, Pan's pipe, from terracotta relief with Judgment of
Paris. (British Museum.)
12.44; Theocr. 20.29). The
reed-flute figured in the following woodcut was found in an Egyptian tomb
and is in the British Museum.
Egyptian reed-flute. (British Museum.)
3. The shaft of an arrow, and in poetry an arrow made of a reed which was not
hollow, but filled with pith (κάλαμος ϝαστός,
Theophr. l.c.; calamus,
Hor. Od. 1.15
; Plin. Nat. 16.161
Ov. Met. 1.471
; Verg. A. 4.73
Hom. Il. 11.584
4. A reed-pen (calamus scriptorius
Cels. 5.28, 12, App. Flor.
9), which, like our quill-pens, was sharpened (καλαμογλυφεῖν,
485. 33, calamum acuere,
) with a knife (scalprum
Tac. [p. 1.330]Ann.
5.8; Suet. Vitell.
2) and had a cleft point (calamus fissipes,
Pens thus made of knotted reeds are represented in the cut under ATRAMENTUM
The case in which
they were kept was called καλαμίς,
or theca cannarum
(Suet. Cl. 35
; cp. Mart. 14.19
, Hieron. in Ezech.
9.2). The earliest
mention of quill-pens appears to be in Isidore, Orig.
3. The best reeds for pen-making came from Egypt, Cnidus and the
; Mart. 14.38
; Aus. l.c.,
and 4.77). Harundo
is used in the same sense in Mart.
; Pers. 3.11; κάλαμος
in Poll. 10.61.
5. A fishing-rod (κάλαμος,
Arist. P. A.
4.12, 11; καλαμίς,
Ov. Met. 3.587
2.1, 5; Tib. 2.6, 23).
6. The fowler's limed rod, which was sometimes composed of separate joints,
so that it could be lengthened to suit the fowler's convenience. It was then
called harundo crescens
7.674-7; Petr. Sat.
109, 7; Bion, xii. (ii.)
5). In the same sense we have calamus
; Mart. 13.68
; Sen. Oct.
7. A light Egyptian boat made of reeds (canna,
; Plin. Nat.
8. A horizontal rod passed through the warp in weaving (harundo,
Ov. Met. 6.55
is also the crown of reeds worn by
river-gods (Verg. A. 8.34
; Ov. Met.