a broad-brimmed felt hat, which was part of
the national costume of the Macedonians [p. 1.389]
neighbouring nations (e. g. the Illyrians, Plaut. Trin.
4.2, 10). The name is obviously derived from its keeping
off the heat of the sun (καῦσις, καύσων
but, as the native poet Antipater of Thessalonica tells us, it was a
protection against bad weather generally (ἐν
), and also served as a helmet (ap. Brunck,
2.111). It was familiar to the Greeks of the Macedonian
period (Menand. fr.
313, Meineke; Plb. 4.4
); and to the Romans as
early as the time of Plautus (Mil. Glor. iv.
4, 42, where it
is part of a sailor's dress; Pers.
2.3, 75; the
mushroom-shaped hat of Trin.
4.2, 9, must have
been an exaggerated causia). A purple (ἁλουργὴς
) causia was worn regularly by the Macedonian kings as
part of the royal .costume (V. Max. 5.1.4
the diadem or white scarf was wrapped round it and the ends
Hermes wearing the Causia. (From a fictile vase.)
Royal Causia, with diadem. (From a Macedonian coin.)
hung down behind. (See the second illustration.) Hence we read of
as worn together by Alexander the Great (Arr. Anab. 7.22
), and his imitator Caracalla
(Herodian, 4.8.5); and of the καυσία
of the last of the Ptolemies (Plut. Ant. 54
). These purple hats, of course
without the diadem, were sometimes distributed as the highest military
decoration (Plut. Eum. 8
). The illustrations are taken from a
fictile vase, and an early Macedonian coin of Alexander I. (about B.C.